The purpose of the study was to explore change in children’s physical self-concept and self-reported physical activity over a school transition period, as well as motivational and interpersonal influences on these two outcomes. Data were collected from 545 children (mean age = 10.82, SD = 0.39, 51% female) at three time points before and after the United Kingdom secondary school transition. Multilevel modeling revealed that physical self-concept and physical activity showed different patterns of decline over the course of the study. Changes in the extent to which physical education teachers were perceived to provide psychological need support, peer focus on self-referenced learning and mastery, and changes in autonomous motives toward physical education classes were positively associated with these outcome variables. The present study provides novel insight into important motivational and interpersonal factors that may need to be targeted to prevent negative developmental patterns over a potentially challenging period for children.
Ian M. Taylor, Christopher M. Spray and Natalie Pearson
Christoph Rottensteiner, Niilo Konttinen and Lauri Laakso
The main purpose of this study was to examine the links of coach-athlete relationship (CAR) and perceived coach-created motivational climate to persistence in youth sport. A total of 1692 persistent and 543 withdrawn football, ice hockey, and basketball players, aged 15–16 years, completed the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire and the Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated that persistent players reported higher scores in CAR and task-climate than withdrawn players. Persistent players also represented higher competition level, higher amount of training, and more years of involvement in sport than withdrawn players. Cluster analysis identified three profiles: 1) High CAR, high task climate, and moderate ego climate, 2) Moderate CAR, moderate task climate, and moderate ego climate, and 3) Low CAR, low task climate, and high ego climate. Differences between profiles were found in terms of relative proportion of continuing players, competition level, and amount of training. In all, Profile 1 appeared to be the most beneficial from the perspective of sport persistence. The present findings lend support for the view that coach-athlete relationship and motivational climate together can have implications for young athletes’ maintenance in organized sports.
Frank L. Smoll, Ronald E. Smith and Sean P. Cumming
Mastery-oriented motivational climates and achievement goal orientations have been associated with a range of salutary and clinically relevant outcomes in both educational and sport research. In view of this, an intervention was developed for youth sport coaches designed to promote a mastery motivational climate, and a field experiment was conducted to assess its effects on changes in athletes’ achievement goal orientations over the course of a sport season. The experimental group was comprised of 155 boys and girls, who played for 20 basketball coaches; 70 youngsters played for 17 control group coaches. The coach intervention resulted in higher Mastery-climate scores and lower Ego-climate scores compared with the control condition, and athletes who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in Mastery goal orientation scores and significant decreases in Ego-orientation scores across the season, whereas control group participants did not. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Theresa C. Brown and Mary D. Fry
This study examined the relationship between college students’ perceptions of the motivational climate (i.e., caring, task- and ego-involving) in physical activity courses to their physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Midwestern university undergraduates (N = 412), enrolled in group physical activity classes, completed the following measures: class climate, physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that students who perceived a caring, task-involving climate were more likely to report high physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. A gender comparison found that while perceptions of the ego-involving climate were significantly higher for males, the ego climate did not significantly contribute to the males’ canonical correlation. In addition, while physical self-concept was positively associated with climate for both genders, males were more likely to experience higher physical self-concept than females. Results suggest positive and supportive exercise environments may not only help individuals reap the physical benefits of exercise but also the psychological benefits.
Sarah Draugelis, Jeffrey Martin and Alex Garn
Although many researchers have examined ill-being (e.g., injury and illness) in dancers, few researchers have examined well-being. In the current study, dancer’s perceptions of the dance motivational climate, dance performance anxiety, dance self-concept, and their relationships to dance well-being were examined. A total of 182 university dance students from five universities completed surveys and a series of multiregression analyses were undertaken to predict well-being. Both dance self-concept and perceptions of a task climate were moderately related to well-being and contributed significantly to elements of well-being: vigor, enthusiasm, confidence, and dedication. An ego climate was unrelated to any of the four dimensions of well-being. Substantial variance was predicted in the various elements of engagement, ranging from 15% to 55%. In particular, two significant interactions indicated that a task climate may have protective effects against anxiety in terms of reducing the detrimental influence that anxiety may have on two forms of well-being: confidence and dedication.
Dany J. MacDonald, Jean Côté, Mark Eys and Janice Deakin
Sport has been identified as a context in which youth encounter positive and negative experiences. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead to positive and negative personal development among sport participants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of enjoyment and motivational climate on positive and negative personal development of team sport participants. A sample of 510 athletes between the ages of 9 and 19 completed questionnaires on positive and negative personal development, enjoyment, and motivational climate. Stepwise multiple regression analyses examined the effects of enjoyment and motivational climate on the personal development of the athletes. Results demonstrated that positive experiences in sport were most strongly predicted by affiliation with peers, self-referenced competency, effort expenditure, and a task climate. Negative experiences were most strongly predicted by an ego climate and other-referenced competency. Results suggest that creating an environment that encourages peer affiliation and personal achievement can result in the positive personal development of youth sport participants.
Evelia Franco, Javier Coterón, Elisa Huéscar and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia
autonomy support and social relatedness support. Along these lines, Abós et al. ( 2017 ) have recently developed and validated a questionnaire to measure teachers’ perceptions of their interpersonal styles. They proposed a four-factor structure made up of task climate support, ego climate support, autonomy
Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
Edited by Kim Gammage
task climate was positively related to all three basic needs, whereas an ego climate was only associated with competence. Competence was unrelated to any of the forms of motivation, whereas autonomy and relatedness had positive associations with autonomous forms of motivation and negative associations
Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender and Debra Hope
expected SAS-2 scores were positively associated with ego orientations and ego climate scores while being negatively associated with task orientation, mastery (task) climate scores, and global self-esteem ( Smith et al., 2006 ). Discriminant validity was established by finding low negative correlations of
José-Antonio Cecchini, Antonio Méndez-Giménez and Beatriz Sánchez-Martínez
and effort have been denominated mastery or task climates, whereas climates emphasizing doing better than others and normative comparison have been termed as performance or ego climates ( Braithwaite, Spray, & Warburton, 2011 ). Research in PE ( Barkoukis, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2010