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Undergraduate Sport Management Education: Exploring Ego Development and Leadership Efficacy

Shannon Kerwin and Kirsty Spence

( Brown et al., 2018 ). Therefore, it is becoming increasingly relevant to explicitly investigate the developmental capacity for critical thinking that occurs among students within sport management programs. One way forward with such an investigation is with the construct known as ego development ( Spence

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Goal Orientations and Perceptions of the Sport Experience

Marc R. Lochbaum and Glyn C. Roberts

Nicholas (1984a, 1984b, 1989) conceptual framework was used to study the relationship between two implicit goal orientations (task and ego) and achievement behaviors. This study examined the relationship between the goal orientations and (a) beliefs concerning determinants of success, (b) competition and practice strategies, (c) practice benefits, and (d) enjoyment. Subjects were 182 male and 114 female high school athletes who competed in at least one sport during the 1989–1990 school year. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the composition of the relevant factors. Ten factors emerged. Canonical analysis was employed to determine the relationship between goal orientations and the 10 subscales. The results, consistent with the hypotheses, showed that athletes with a task orientation focused on adaptive achievement strategies whereas athletes with an ego orientation focused on potentially maladaptive achievement strategies. The implications of the results to sport participation are discussed.

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Ego-Oriented Learners Show Advantage in Retention and Transfer of Balancing Skill

Cassio M. Meira Jr and Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

differences in goal perspectives (i.e., task- or ego-orientations) establish critical antecedents to variations in the direction and intensity of task-related behavior. In AGT, a distinction is made between task and ego forms of competence-relevant perspectives (for a historical review, see Elliot, 2005

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Countering the Consequences of Ego Depletion: The Effects of Self-Talk on Selective Attention

Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos, and Athanasios Papaioannou

action over a specific amount of time. After an amount of time of action, the muscle becomes fatigued. The same can be said about self-control, which reduces in strength after performing a self-control action over an amount of time. The diminished state of self-control strength is referred to as ego

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The Role of Ego Networks in Compulsive Exercise Behavior Among a Sample of College Sorority Women

Megan S. Patterson and Patricia Goodson

egocentric network analysis: (1) Are there specific relationships (ie, a close relationship with a roommate) that are related to compulsive exercise scores? (2) Are there patterns in someone’s network (ie, having relationships with others who exercise the same amount as the ego) that are related to

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An Ego-Involving Motivational Climate Can Trigger Inflammation, a Threat Appraisal, and Basic Psychological Need Frustration in an Achievement Context

Candace M. Hogue

rewarding environments for participants and avoid harmful practices. Nicholls defined the motivational climate as either task- or ego-involving, which is determined by the manner in which leaders structure activities (e.g., cooperative vs. hypercompetitive) and the type of encouragement and feedback given

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Do Athletes Claim Handicaps in Low Ego-Threatening Conditions? Re-Examining the Effect of Ego-Threat on Claimed Self-Handicapping

Lucie Finez, Sophie Berjot, Elisabeth Rosnet, and Christena Cleveland

One hundred and three athletes participated in a motor task that was ostensibly designed to detect their physical ability (high ego-threatening condition) or provide pretesting data for an upcoming study (low ego-threatening condition) and were then given the opportunity to claim handicaps that could impair their performance on this task. Extending previous findings that high self-handicappers (i.e., athletes who scored high on the self-handicapping scale) and low self-esteem athletes engage in claimed self-handicapping in high ego-threatening conditions, the results reveal that they may also engage in this strategy in low ego-threatening conditions. In the low ego-threatening condition, athletes’ self-esteem and self-handicapping tendency explained together 33% of the handicaps they claimed.

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Causal Attributions by Athletes: Mole of Ego Involvement

James Luginbuhl and Arnold Bell

Causal attributions for poor performance were explored. Male athletes specializing in one of three track-and-field events—jumping, sprinting, or throwing—read a vignette about another jumper, sprinter, or thrower who performed below expectations, and a fourth vignette about a pole vaulter who performed above expectations. After each vignette, subjects were asked to list three factors that contributed to the performance of the target person. It was predicted that when the ego involvement of subjects was high (rating an athlete from their own specialty area), they would be more likely to make situational attributions than when their ego involvement was low (rating an athlete from another specialty area). This prediction was generally supported. Subjects also made more dispositional attributions for the successful performance than for the unsuccessful one. It is suggested that knowledge of the role played by ego involvement in attributions would help coaches maintain group morale.

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Extremely Ego-Oriented Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives on Teaching Physical Education

John R. Todorovich

Social constructivists posit that learning involves social interactions among individuals in a given place and time. Since teachers play a significant role in how social interactions are developed and determined in the school classroom, it is important to learn how teachers make decisions about their teaching behaviors and interactions with their students. Because extreme ego orientations have been shown to have a mediating effect on performance behavior in achievement settings, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of an extreme ego orientation on preservice teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education. Data collection consisted of two formal interviews, several informal interviews, and observations of the participants’ teaching. Five themes reflecting the teaching perspectives held by the participants emerged from the data: (a) teachers must maintain control and manage their classes, (b) the best students should be singled out, (c) physical education is an isolated subject area, (c) physical education and athletics are inherently linked, and (d) because only the best can do physical education well, teachers must grade on effort. Findings demonstrate how extreme ego orientations were actualized in preservice teachers’ perspectives of teaching.

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The Effect of Ego Depletion on Sprint Start Reaction Time

Chris Englert and Alex Bertrams

In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes’ self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants’ start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.