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James Luginbuhl and Arnold Bell

Causal attributions for poor performance were explored. Male athletes specializing in one of three track-and-field events—jumping, sprinting, or throwing—read a vignette about another jumper, sprinter, or thrower who performed below expectations, and a fourth vignette about a pole vaulter who performed above expectations. After each vignette, subjects were asked to list three factors that contributed to the performance of the target person. It was predicted that when the ego involvement of subjects was high (rating an athlete from their own specialty area), they would be more likely to make situational attributions than when their ego involvement was low (rating an athlete from another specialty area). This prediction was generally supported. Subjects also made more dispositional attributions for the successful performance than for the unsuccessful one. It is suggested that knowledge of the role played by ego involvement in attributions would help coaches maintain group morale.

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Luke Sage and Maria Kavussanu

In this experiment we examined the effects of task and ego involvement on three measures of moral behavior—prosocial choice, observed prosocial behavior, and observed antisocial behavior—in a competitive setting. We also investigated sex differences in moral behavior. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 48) college students were randomly assigned to a task-involving, an ego-involving, or a control condition. Participants played two 10-min games of table soccer and completed measures of prosocial choice, goal involvement, goal orientation, and demographics. The two games were recorded, and frequencies of prosocial and antisocial behavior were coded. Players assigned to the task-involving condition were higher in prosocial choice than those in the ego-involving or control conditions. Individuals in the ego-involving condition displayed more antisocial behaviors than those in the task-involving or control conditions. Finally, females displayed more prosocial behaviors than males.

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Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry

in achievement settings. In an ego-involving climate, instructors perceive that promoting competition and employing normative standards of performance to define individuals’ ability will enhance motivation ( Brown & Fry, 2013 ). Strategies that reinforce this climate include fostering rivalry among

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

-driven motivational climate plays a key role in determining the response of participants in achievement settings. He defined the motivational climate as task- or ego-involving, depending on the structure of the psychosocial environment and the features that are emphasized by coaches (e.g., winning vs. trying your

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E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

examine the effects of emphasizing effort, improvement, and cooperative learning (i.e., task-involving climate); or intra-group rivalry, punishment of mistakes, and favoritism (i.e., ego-involving climate) to understand the effect of the coach created climate on athletes’ motivation ( Fry & Moore, 2019

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

motivational climate—task- or ego-involving—that they create ( Nicholls, 1989 ). Intervention research has supported that whichever motivational climate individuals are exposed to in an achievement setting increases the participants’ adoption of the matching goal orientation ( Todorovich & Curtner-Smith, 2002

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Kacie V. Lanier, Chad M. Killian, Kathryn Wilson, and Rebecca Ellis

students’ feelings of anxiety. For example, task-involving climates (e.g., focus on personal improvement and positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses during activity involvement) were more likely to result in or be associated with lower levels of anxiety, while ego-involving climates (e

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Mary D. Fry, Candace M. Hogue, Susumu Iwasaki, and Gloria B. Solomon

more ego-involving climate (EIC) by making it clear that winning and outperforming others is of highest importance, punishing athletes for making mistakes, giving the majority of praise and recognition to the star players, and pitting athletes against one another. The EICs have consistently been linked

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Pepijn K.C. van de Pol, Maria Kavussanu, and Christopher Ring

This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals’ achievement motivation.

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Theresa C. Brown and Mary D. Fry

This study examined the relationship between college students’ perceptions of the motivational climate (i.e., caring, task- and ego-involving) in physical activity courses to their physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Midwestern university undergraduates (N = 412), enrolled in group physical activity classes, completed the following measures: class climate, physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that students who perceived a caring, task-involving climate were more likely to report high physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. A gender comparison found that while perceptions of the ego-involving climate were significantly higher for males, the ego climate did not significantly contribute to the males’ canonical correlation. In addition, while physical self-concept was positively associated with climate for both genders, males were more likely to experience higher physical self-concept than females. Results suggest positive and supportive exercise environments may not only help individuals reap the physical benefits of exercise but also the psychological benefits.