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Participation in Sport and Moral Functioning: Does Ego Orientation Mediate Their Relationship?

Maria Kavussanu and Nikos Ntoumanis

This study examined whether participation in contact sports influences moral functioning within the sport context, and whether these effects are mediated by ego orientation; the role of task orientation on moral functioning was also examined. Participants (N = 221) were college athletes participating in basketball, soccer, field hockey, and rugby. They completed questionnaires assessing sport participation, goal orientations, moral functioning, and social desirability. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that participation in contact sports positively predicted ego orientation, which in turn predicted low levels of moral functioning. The direct effects of sport participation on moral functioning became nonsignificant in the presence of ego orientation, indicating that the latter construct mediates the relationship between the first two variables. Task orientation corresponded to high levels of moral functioning. These findings help us further understand the processes operating in contact sports and are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportspersonlike conduct from the sport context.

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Cross-Cultural Validation of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire

Fuzhong Li, Peter Harmer, Likang Chi, and Naruepon Vongjaturapat

It is becoming increasingly important to determine whether structural models of measures of sport and activity behavior developed in North America are invarant across different populations. This study assessed (a) the cross-cultural validity of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) using male college students across the United States (n = 309), Thailand (n = 312), and Taiwan (n = 307); and (b) the factorial equivalence and structured latent mean differences of the TEOSQ in these samples. Using a confirmatory factor analytic procedure, the initial test of the hypothesized two-factor structure representing task and ego orientation yielded a good fit for each sample. The factor structure was further shown to be metric invariant across the three countries. Furthermore, tests of latent means showed significant differences between groups. The United States sample exhibited the highest levels of task and ego orientation, followed by the Taiwan and Thailand samples, respectively.

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Relationship between Task and Ego Orientation and the Perceived Purpose of Sport among High School Athletes

Joan L. Duda

This study examined the relationship between an athlete's goal perspective (i.e., task or ego orientation) and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. The sport-specific measure of task and ego orientation was found to have a stable factor structure and high internal consistency. Factor analysis of the Purpose of Sport Questionnaire revealed seven factors: sport should (a) teach the value of mastery and cooperation, (b) show people how to be physically active for life, (c) make good citizens, (d) make people competitive, (e) help individuals obtain a high status career, (f) enhance self-esteem, and (g) show people how to get ahead and increase their social status. Results indicated that the importance placed on skill mastery and personal improvement in sport (task orientation) positively related to the beliefs that sport should enhance self-esteem and teach people to try their test, cooperate, and be good citizens. Ego orientation was a positive predictor of the view that sport involvement should enhance one's self-esteem and social status.

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Extremely Ego-Oriented Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives on Teaching Physical Education

John R. Todorovich

Social constructivists posit that learning involves social interactions among individuals in a given place and time. Since teachers play a significant role in how social interactions are developed and determined in the school classroom, it is important to learn how teachers make decisions about their teaching behaviors and interactions with their students. Because extreme ego orientations have been shown to have a mediating effect on performance behavior in achievement settings, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of an extreme ego orientation on preservice teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education. Data collection consisted of two formal interviews, several informal interviews, and observations of the participants’ teaching. Five themes reflecting the teaching perspectives held by the participants emerged from the data: (a) teachers must maintain control and manage their classes, (b) the best students should be singled out, (c) physical education is an isolated subject area, (c) physical education and athletics are inherently linked, and (d) because only the best can do physical education well, teachers must grade on effort. Findings demonstrate how extreme ego orientations were actualized in preservice teachers’ perspectives of teaching.

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Relationship between Multidimensional Perfectionism and Goal Orientations in Sport

John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Daniel G. Syrotuik

This study examined the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientations among male Canadian Football players (M age = 18.24 years). Athletes (N = 174) completed inventories to assess perfectionist orientations and goal orientations in sport. Perfectionism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was measured with a newly constructed sport-specific version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified MPS revealed four sport-related perfectionism dimensions: perceived parental pressure, personal standards, concern over mistakes, and perceived coach pressure. Canonical correlation analysis obtained two significant canonical functions (R C1 = .36; R C2 = .30). The first one revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with an adaptive profile of perfectionism. The second one revealed that ego orientation was positively associated with a maladaptive profile of perfectionism. Results are discussed in the context of Hamachek’s (1978) conceptualization of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.

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The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion on the Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Sport-Confidence

Arash Assar, Robert Weinberg, Rose Marie Ward, and Robin S. Vealey

, which can be distinguished into task and ego orientation. Task orientation refers to a goal orientation style in which an individual evaluates success and competency using self-referenced criteria, such as self-improvement and mastery. Ego orientation refers to an orientation style where an individual

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Ego-Oriented Learners Show Advantage in Retention and Transfer of Balancing Skill

Cassio M. Meira Jr and Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

differences in goal perspectives (i.e., task- or ego-orientations) establish critical antecedents to variations in the direction and intensity of task-related behavior. In AGT, a distinction is made between task and ego forms of competence-relevant perspectives (for a historical review, see Elliot, 2005

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Examining the Motivation and Perceived Benefits of Pickleball Participation in Older Adults

Armand A. Buzzelli and Jason A. Draper

participants who identify self-improvement as a benefit may be more task oriented. Duda developed a Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire ( Duda, 1989 ), which can be used to assess whether an individual defines success in a sporting context as “task oriented “or “ego oriented.” Research using this

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Multiple Goal Orientations as Predictors of Moral Behavior in Youth Soccer

Luke Sage and Maria Kavussanu

The purpose of this study was to examine task-, ego-, and social-goal orientations as predictors of prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth soccer. Participants were 365 male (n = 227) and female (n = 138) youth soccer players M age = 13.4 years, SD = 1.8), who completed questionnaires measuring task and ego orientation; the goals of social affiliation, social recognition and social status; prosocial and antisocial behavior; and demographics. Regression analyses revealed that prosocial behavior was predicted positively by task orientation and social affiliation and negatively by social status. In contrast, antisocial behavior was predicted positively by ego orientation and social status and negatively by task orientation. Findings for task and ego orientation are consistent with previous work. Social-goal orientations explained further variance in prosocial and antisocial behavior, and their inclusion in future moral research is encouraged.

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A Cross-Cultural Extension of Goal Perspective Theory to Korean Youth Sport

Byoung Jun Kim and Diane L. Gill

This study examined the predictions of goal perspective theory within Korean youth sport. Middle-school-aged athletes (244 males and 90 females) completed the Korean versions of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Both task and ego orientations were positively correlated with intrinsic motivation. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that overall fit for the modified versions of the TEOSQ (10 items) and the IMI (13 items) were marginal. Gender × Grade (2 × 3) MANOVAs revealed that males were higher than females on two dimensions of intrinsic motivation (perceived competence and effort/importance). Canonical correlation analyses indicated that both task and ego orientation scores corresponded to the dimensions of the IMI. These findings are discussed in terms of cross-cultural generality and cultural specificity of the goal perspective theory.