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Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King, and James A. Johnson

, ligament forces of the human elbow joint have not been reported. Direct measurement of the tension in the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (AMCL) 6 – 15 would allow for an improved understanding of the load environment of this tissue, which is an important primary stabilizer against

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Danny M. Pincivero, Rachael R. Polen, and Brittany N. Byrd

mass, percentage body fat, arm skinfold thickness, and peak elbow flexor/extensor force (concentric and eccentric), were sampled from 30 healthy young adults (Table  1 ). All participants were physically active, as they reported performing various types of exercise at least 2 days per week for

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Nicole Cascia, Tim L. Uhl, and Carolyn M. Hettrich

increase in the incidence of UCL reconstructions performed annually, which is projected through 2025. 6 A recent survey distributed to 159 active members of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessed current trends related to the treatment of UCL injuries in athletes and found divided opinions

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Bassam A. Nabil, Mariam A. Ameer, Azza M. Abdelmohsen, Abeer F. Hanafy, Ahmed S. Yamani, Naglaa M. Elhafez, and Salam M. Elhafez

in golfers and tennis players. 1 – 3 The control of the overhead movement depends on the position of the shoulder and elbow in space. 4 , 5 The elbow joint complex is usually exposed to frequent injury, especially in overhead activities, due to the large impact force of throwing as in playing golf

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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited, and Donald Bae

high velocity pitches. 1 , 7 , 9 , 10 , 14 Additionally, prior analyses identified that fastballs generate the greatest levels of force on the pitcher’s elbow in comparison to other types of pitches. 7 , 11 Also, fastballs are typically the most commonly thrown pitch during a game. 15

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Matthew D. Watson, George J. Davies, and Bryan L. Riemann

SSASP performance and isokinetic pushing forces at varying velocities 5 directly supports the idea that the SSASP reflects multijoint UE strength. Simultaneous shoulder flexion and elbow extension are utilized within both SSASP and isokinetic push testing techniques. No previous work appears to have

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Brian J. Diefenbach, Anthony S. Kulas, Christopher J. Curran, and Patrick M. Rider

(UCL). The UCL is responsible for stabilization of the elbow during throwing, as it accounts for ∼50% of the counter to elbow varus torque during pitching, 14 and is the most commonly injured soft tissue structure in baseball pitchers. 15 While traditional ultrasound evaluation falls short of

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Sierra Hakanson, Samuel T. Johnson, Emily C. Norcross, and Cathleen N. Brown

Clinical Scenario Throwing athletes frequently experience elbow injuries, with the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) being involved approximately 84% of the time. 1 Differences in pitching mechanics produce varying forces, torques, and velocities at the elbow and shoulder throughout the pitching

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Blanca de la Cruz Torres

Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) refers to a painful condition at or around the lateral epicondyle of the humerus that is aggravated by extension and/or supination of the wrist against resistance. LE is one of the most common injuries of the elbow, 1 , 2 with considerable costs and impact on workers

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Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan

repetitions, over a sham treatment during a repetitive elbow-flexion task at the same level of exertion. Methods Participants We recruited and enrolled 34 healthy males (N = 32) and females (N = 2) between the age of 18 to 35 years. Participants had to be performing upper-extremity strength training at least