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Scott A. Conger and David R. Bassett Jr.

The purpose of this study was to develop a compendium of wheelchair-related physical activities. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic review of the published energy costs of activities performed by individuals who use wheelchairs. A total of 266 studies were identified by a literature search using relevant keywords. Inclusion criteria were studies utilizing individuals who routinely use a manual wheelchair, indirect calorimetry as the criterion measurement, energy expenditure expressed as METs or VO2, and physical activities typical of wheelchair users. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 63 different wheelchair activities were identified with energy expenditure values ranging from 0.8 to 12.5 kcal·kg-1·hr-1. The energy requirements for some activities differed between individuals who use wheelchairs and those who do not. The compendium of wheelchair-related activities can be used to enhance scoring of physical activity surveys and to promote the benefits of activity in this population.

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Jacobo Rodríguez-Sanz, Carlos López-de-Celis, César Hidalgo-García, Vanessa González-Rueda, Paolo Ragazzi, Elena Bueno-Gracia, Luis Llurda-Almuzara, and Albert Pérez-Bellmunt

the application of electric currents 24 – 27 within the radio frequency range of 300 kHz to 1.2 MHz. 28 Due to the properties of the tissues, currents in CRet therapy can generate heating of deep muscle tissues, causing improvements in hemoglobin saturation and increasing the temperature, 23

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Brian V. Hortz and Sue Falsone

foot bilaterally and tenderness to palpation at the origin medial calcaneus with some mild tenderness along the length of the central band of the PF. Table 1 DN Locations, Needle Lengths, and Rationale Location Rationale Needle Included in electric stim Sacrotuberous ligament just off sacrum. RE

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Xiaoyue Hu, Jingxian Li, and Lin Wang

and ankle proprioception were observed by establishing the threshold at which passive motion is detected on the predominant leg. The tests were conducted in an isolated and sound-attenuated room to reduce any interference that may distract the participants. An electric-driven movable frame was used to

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Takashi Kato, Yusaku Takeda, Toshio Tsuji, and Tatsuya Kasai

The present study investigated the relative contribution of the cortical and spinal mechanisms for post-exercise excitability changes in human motoneurons. Seven healthy right-handed adults with no known neuromuscular disabilities performed an isometric voluntary wrist flexion at submaximum continuous exertion. After the subjects continued muscle contraction until volitional fatigue, the H-reflexes induced by an electric stimulation and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from a flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle were recorded 7 times every 20 s. The H-reflex was used to assess excitability changes at the spinal level, and the MEP was used to study excitability changes at the cortical level. H-reflexes showed a depression (30% of control value) soon after the cessation of wrist flexion and recovered with time thereafter. On the other hand, an early (short latency) MEP showed facilitation immediately after the cessation of wrist flexion (50% of control value) and thereafter decreased. A possible mechanism for the contradictory results of the 2 tests, in spite of focusing on the same motoneuron pool, might be the different test potential sizes between them. In addition, a late (long latency) MEP response appeared with increasing exercise. With regard to the occurrence of late MEP response, a central mechanism may be proposed to explain the origin—that is, neural pathways with a high threshold that do not participate under normal circumstances might respond to an emergency level of muscle exercise, probably reflecting central effects of fatigue.

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Steven J. Elmer and James C. Martin

Eccentric cycling serves a useful exercise modality in clinical, research, and sport training settings. However, several constraints can make it difficult to use commercially available eccentric cycle ergometers. In this technical note, we describe the process by which we built an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer using exercise equipment modified with commonly available industrial parts. Specifically, we started with a used recumbent cycle ergometer and removed all the original parts leaving only the frame and seat. A 2.2 kW electric motor was attached to a transmission system that was then joined with the ergometer. The motor was controlled using a variable frequency drive, which allowed for control of a wide range of pedaling rates. The ergometer was also equipped with a power measurement device that quantified work, power, and pedaling rate and provided feedback to the individual performing the exercise. With these parts along with some custom fabrication, we were able to construct an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer suitable for research and training. This paper offers a guide for those individuals who plan to use eccentric cycle ergometry as an exercise modality and wish to construct their own ergometer.

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Tiffany Switlick, Thomas W. Kernozek, and Stacey Meardon


A relationship between altered postural control and injury has been reported in sports. Sensorimotor function serves a fundamental role in postural control and is not often studied in runners. Persons who sustain running injury may have altered sensorimotor function contributing to risk of injury or reinjury.


To determine if differences in knee and ankle proprioception or plantar sensation exist between injured and noninjured runners.


Retrospective case-control study.


University campus.


Twenty runners with a history of lower-extremity overuse injury and 20 noninjured runners were examined. Injured runners were subcategorized into 2 groups based on site of injury: foot/ankle and knee/hip.

Main Outcome Measures:

Active absolute joint-repositioning error of the ankle at 20° inversion and 10° eversion and the knee at 15° and 40° flexion was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Vibratory threshold at the calcaneus, arch, and great toe was determined for each subject using a handheld electric sensory threshold instrument.


Runners in the injured-foot/ankle group had increased absolute error during ankle-eversion repositioning (6.55° ± 3.58°) compared with those in the noninjured (4.04° ± 1.78°, P = .01) and the hip/knee (3.63° ± 2.2°, P = .01) groups. Runners in the injured group, as a whole, had greater sensitivity in the arch of the plantar surface (2.94 ± 0.52 V) than noninjured runners (2.38 ± 0.53 V, P = .02).


Differences in ankle-eversion proprioception between runners with a history of ankle and foot injuries and noninjured runners were observed. Runners with a history of injury also displayed an increased vibratory threshold in the arch region compared with noninjured runners. Poor ankle-joint-position sense and increased plantar sensitivity suggest altered sensorimotor function after injury. These factors may influence underlying postural control and contribute to altered loading responses commonly observed in injured runners.

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Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel, and Mirjam Pijnappels

in the Netherlands, among those aged 75 years and older, up to 26% of trips are still by bicycle. Fishman, Bocker, and Helbich ( 2015 ) have also suggested that in the Netherlands, people who have retired actually bicycle more than people of employment age. During the last few years, electric bicycle

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Chunbo Liu

-input single-output (MISO) Wiener nonlinear model, and the solution provides a new way for the design of eccentric training system. Methods MISO Wiener Nonlinear Model The mathematical model was applied to indirectly get accurate eccentric power that people worked on the eccentric trainer. When the electric

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Craig M. Crow

By Andrew R.M. Smith. Published in January 2020 by the University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA George Foreman has gained fame for both a legendary boxing career and a bestselling electric grill bearing his name. However, author Andrew R.M. Smith’s thoroughly researched first book, No Way but