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Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding, and Paul B. Laursen

setting), alongside “gold standard” electrocardiography (ECG). Methods Participants Twenty-nine subjects were initially recruited for this study. From this data set 2 subjects were removed, as they were unable to complete an entire 60 seconds of usable PPG data. Another subject was removed due to a

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James W.G. Thompson and David Hagedorn

Sports-related concussions are complex injuries with biomechanical and biochemical etiology that present with central and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Current methods for assessing concussions and basing return-to-play decisions rely on symptom resolution, rating scales, and neuropsychological testing, all of which are indirect measures of injury severity and detect functional capabilities but do not directly measure injury location or severity. In addition, these downstream measures are susceptible to false negatives because compensatory mechanism, such as unmasking and redundancies in brain circuitry can return functional capabilities before injury resolution. The multifactorial nature of concussion necessitates rapid, inexpensive, and easily applied multimodal analysis methods that can offer greater sensitivity and specificity. This article discusses how new approaches utilizing electrophysiology (e.g., QEEG, ERP, ECG, HRV), quantified balance measures, and biochemistry are necessary to advance the science of concussion assessment, treatment, recovery projections, and return-to-play decisions. These additional assessment tools offer a more direct window into the severity and location of the injury, real-time measures of brain function, and the ability to measure the multiple body systems negatively affected by concussion.

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Eduardo Salazar, Mayank Gupta, Meynard Toledo, Qiao Wang, Pavan Turaga, James M. Parish, and Matthew P. Buman

fitted with an infrared camera and microphone where their PSG would take place. They were fitted with standard PSG monitoring equipment, including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), respiratory flow-sensing nasal cannula, submental electromyography (EMG), 2-lead electrocardiography

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Stephen F. Figoni, Richard A. Boileau, Benjamin H. Massey, and Joseph R. Larsen

The purpose of this study was to compare quadriplegic and able-bodied men on selected cardiovascular and metabolic responses to arm-crank ergometry at the same rate of oxygen consumption (V̇O2). Subjects included 11 untrained, spinal cord-injured, C5–C7 complete quadriplegic men and 11 untrained, able-bodied men of similar age (27 years), height (177 cm), and mass (65 kg). Measurement techniques included open-circuit spirometry, impedance cardiography, and electrocardiography. Compared with the able-bodied group, at the V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min, the quadriplegics displayed a significantly higher mean heart rate and arteriovenous O2 difference, lower stroke volume and cardiac output, and similar myocardial contractility. These results suggest that quadriplegic men achieve an exercise-induced V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min through different central cardiovascular adjustments than do able-bodied men. Quadriplegics deliver less O2 from the heart toward the tissues but extract more O2 from the blood. Tachycardia may contribute to low cardiac preload and low stroke volume, while paradoxically tending to compensate for low stroke volume by minimizing reduction of cardiac output.

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Martin S. Davey, Matthew G. Davey, Robert Hurley, Eoghan T. Hurley, and Leo Pauzenberger

infection, 11 studies (73.3%) made recommendations with specific reference to minimizing myocardial insult following infection. The most commonly utilized investigations advised prior to RTP were electrocardiography and serum cardiac biomarker levels; most specifically troponin T and I (both 86.7%). In

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Kelli M. Teson, Jessica S. Watson, Wayne A. Mays, Sandy Knecht, Tracy Curran, Paul Rebovich, David D. Williams, Stephen M. Paridon, and David A. White

 = 52) Safety 92.3 Professional 27.0 Clinical 21.2 None required 9.6 Abbreviations: ACLS, advanced cardiovascular life support; ACSM, american college of sports medicine; BLS, basic life support; CPEL, clinical pediatric exercise laboratory; EKG, electrocardiography; ExP, exercise physiologist; NP

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Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens, and Daniel J. Plews

]) and for the precamp and training camp periods was determined as 0.3 multiplied by the individual CV over a week prior to the case study, and TE was defined as the previously observed value for photoplethysmography against electrocardiography (6.9%). 17 Sum of 8 skinfold thickness CV (3.8%) and TE (1

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Andrew Wilson, Lynette M. Carlson, Colton Norton, and W. David Bruce

electrocardiography before a return to light exercise, while the updated recommendations tailor return to sport based on severity of infection (i.e., cardiopulmonary symptoms). In September of 2020, Wilson et al. 9 published recommendations for elite athletes to include advanced imaging including 12-lead

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair, and Mark A. Sarzynski

electrocardiography at baseline. The cross-sectional analysis included 11,590 participants (8865 males; 2725 females) with baseline data, and the longitudinal analysis included 2532 participants (2160 males; 372 females) with at least 2 clinic visits. The total number of examinations completed by each participant

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Leonardo Shigaki, Cynthia Gobbi Alves Araújo, Mariane Guizeline Calderon, Thais Karoline Cezar Costa, Andreo Fernando Aguiar, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa, and Rubens A. da Silva

were subsequently bandpass filtered (20 and 450 Hz; eighth-order zero-lag Butterworth IRR filter) to remove high-frequency noise as well as low-frequency movement and electrocardiography artifacts. Electrocardiography is dominant in torso EMG signals, which made necessary the use of a high-pass cutoff