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Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding and Paul B. Laursen

setting), alongside “gold standard” electrocardiography (ECG). Methods Participants Twenty-nine subjects were initially recruited for this study. From this data set 2 subjects were removed, as they were unable to complete an entire 60 seconds of usable PPG data. Another subject was removed due to a

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James W.G. Thompson and David Hagedorn

Sports-related concussions are complex injuries with biomechanical and biochemical etiology that present with central and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Current methods for assessing concussions and basing return-to-play decisions rely on symptom resolution, rating scales, and neuropsychological testing, all of which are indirect measures of injury severity and detect functional capabilities but do not directly measure injury location or severity. In addition, these downstream measures are susceptible to false negatives because compensatory mechanism, such as unmasking and redundancies in brain circuitry can return functional capabilities before injury resolution. The multifactorial nature of concussion necessitates rapid, inexpensive, and easily applied multimodal analysis methods that can offer greater sensitivity and specificity. This article discusses how new approaches utilizing electrophysiology (e.g., QEEG, ERP, ECG, HRV), quantified balance measures, and biochemistry are necessary to advance the science of concussion assessment, treatment, recovery projections, and return-to-play decisions. These additional assessment tools offer a more direct window into the severity and location of the injury, real-time measures of brain function, and the ability to measure the multiple body systems negatively affected by concussion.

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Eduardo Salazar, Mayank Gupta, Meynard Toledo, Qiao Wang, Pavan Turaga, James M. Parish and Matthew P. Buman

fitted with an infrared camera and microphone where their PSG would take place. They were fitted with standard PSG monitoring equipment, including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), respiratory flow-sensing nasal cannula, submental electromyography (EMG), 2-lead electrocardiography

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Stephen F. Figoni, Richard A. Boileau, Benjamin H. Massey and Joseph R. Larsen

The purpose of this study was to compare quadriplegic and able-bodied men on selected cardiovascular and metabolic responses to arm-crank ergometry at the same rate of oxygen consumption (V̇O2). Subjects included 11 untrained, spinal cord-injured, C5–C7 complete quadriplegic men and 11 untrained, able-bodied men of similar age (27 years), height (177 cm), and mass (65 kg). Measurement techniques included open-circuit spirometry, impedance cardiography, and electrocardiography. Compared with the able-bodied group, at the V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min, the quadriplegics displayed a significantly higher mean heart rate and arteriovenous O2 difference, lower stroke volume and cardiac output, and similar myocardial contractility. These results suggest that quadriplegic men achieve an exercise-induced V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min through different central cardiovascular adjustments than do able-bodied men. Quadriplegics deliver less O2 from the heart toward the tissues but extract more O2 from the blood. Tachycardia may contribute to low cardiac preload and low stroke volume, while paradoxically tending to compensate for low stroke volume by minimizing reduction of cardiac output.

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Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens and Daniel J. Plews

]) and for the precamp and training camp periods was determined as 0.3 multiplied by the individual CV over a week prior to the case study, and TE was defined as the previously observed value for photoplethysmography against electrocardiography (6.9%). 17 Sum of 8 skinfold thickness CV (3.8%) and TE (1

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski

electrocardiography at baseline. The cross-sectional analysis included 11,590 participants (8865 males; 2725 females) with baseline data, and the longitudinal analysis included 2532 participants (2160 males; 372 females) with at least 2 clinic visits. The total number of examinations completed by each participant

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Leonardo Shigaki, Cynthia Gobbi Alves Araújo, Mariane Guizeline Calderon, Thais Karoline Cezar Costa, Andreo Fernando Aguiar, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa and Rubens A. da Silva

were subsequently bandpass filtered (20 and 450 Hz; eighth-order zero-lag Butterworth IRR filter) to remove high-frequency noise as well as low-frequency movement and electrocardiography artifacts. Electrocardiography is dominant in torso EMG signals, which made necessary the use of a high-pass cutoff

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Suzanna Russell, Angus G. Evans, David G. Jenkins and Vincent G. Kelly

. Monitored through electrocardiography and pulse plethysmography, ECP is believed to augment the magnitude of cardiac output and venous return by inducing more favorable distal to proximal pressure differentials within the cardiovascular system. A potential advantage of ECP as an effective recovery method is

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Reabias de A. Pereira, José Luiz de B. Alves, João Henrique da C. Silva, Matheus da S. Costa and Alexandre S. Silva

M , Wood M , Kilding AE , Laursen PB . Comparison of heart-rate-variability recording with smartphone photoplethysmography, Polar H7 chest strap, and electrocardiography . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 ( 10 ): 1324 – 1328 . PubMed ID: 28290720 doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2016

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Zackary S. Cicone, Oleg A. Sinelnikov and Michael R. Esco

, Moreyra AE , Amendo MT , Di Pietro J , Cosgrove N , Kuo PT . The effect of age on heart rate in subjects free of heart disease. Studies by ambulatory electrocardiography and maximal exercise stress test . Circulation . 1982 ; 65 ( 1 ): 141 – 5 . PubMed doi:10.1161/01.CIR.65.1.141 14