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Brain Dynamics and Motor Behavior: A Case for Efficiency and Refinement for Superior Performance

Bradley D. Hatfield

electroencephalography (EEG) (i.e., spectral power, coherence, and event-related potentials [ERPs]). The training-induced changes in cerebral cortical and subcortical activity, as well as cortico-cortical communication or networking and connectivity, will be summarized to describe the neurobiological basis of human

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Concussion: A Window Into Brain–Movement Relations in Motor Control

Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

electroencephalography (EEG) and functional MRI to observe the neurophysiological indices surrounding performance. Early use of EEG demonstrated differences between asymptomatic subjects and subjects recovering from sports-related concussion. Within the SRC spectrum of head injury, resting EEG has demonstrated changes

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Electroencephalography and Mental States Associated with Elite Performance

George W. Lawton, Tsung Min Hung, Pekka Saarela, and Bradley D. Hatfield

High levels of athletic performance are frequently attributed to mental states. Evidence for this attribution comes mainly from phenomenological reports of athletes. However, research with elite performers using electrophysiological measures has tracked changes in nervous system activity in real time during performance, which may further understanding of such states. Specific patterns of psychophysiological activity from the cerebral cortex, in the form of event-related slow potentials (SPs), as well as spectral content measured by electroencephalography (EEG), occur in the few seconds of performance (preshot) preparation. We discuss these data. We suggest that the logical structure of research with athletes differs from other psychophysiological research. We emphasize the theoretical mind-body issues and the logical structure of these investigations to suggest directions for future research.

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Do Male and Female Cyclists’ Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

Sebastian Ludyga, Thomas Gronwald, and Kuno Hottenrott

Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists’ cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men’s brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

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Heart-Rate Variability During Deep Sleep in World-Class Alpine Skiers: A Time-Efficient Alternative to Morning Supine Measurements

David Herzig, Moreno Testorelli, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Daniel Erlacher, Peter Achermann, Prisca Eser, and Matthias Wilhelm


It is increasingly popular to use heart-rate variability (HRV) to tailor training for athletes. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep.


To validate the selection of deep-sleep segments identified by RR intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements.


In 11 world-class alpine skiers, RR intervals were monitored during 10 nights, and simultaneous EEGs were recorded during 2–4 nights. Deep sleep was determined from the HRV signal and verified by delta power from the EEG recordings. Four further segments were chosen for HRV determination, namely, a 4-h segment from midnight to 4 AM and three 5-min segments: 1 just before awakening, 1 after waking in supine position, and 1 in standing after orthostatic challenge. Training load was recorded every day.


A total of 80 night and 68 morning measurements of 9 athletes were analyzed. Good correspondence between the phases selected by RR intervals vs those selected by EEG was found. Concerning root-mean-squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), a marker for parasympathetic activity, the best relationship with the morning supine measurement was found in deep sleep.


HRV is a simple tool for approximating deep-sleep phases, and HRV measurement during deep sleep could provide a time-efficient alternative to HRV in supine position.

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Sleep Deprivation Training to Reduce the Negative Effects of Sleep Loss on Endurance Performance: A Single Case Study

Chiara Gattoni, Michele Girardi, Barry Vincent O’Neill, and Samuele Maria Marcora

participant subsequently performed the alpha attenuation test, 7 an objective measure of sleepiness based on 12-minute eyes-closed eyes-open electroencephalography (EEG). Finally, the participant ran for 2 hours on the treadmill at a constant speed of 11 km/h (corresponding to the average speed adopted

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In Memoriam: Daniel M. Landers 1942–2023

Deborah L. Feltz, Bradley Hatfield, and Jennifer L. Etnier

skilled motor behavior stimulated the examination of cerebral cortical activity (i.e., via electroencephalography [EEG]) during the learning and performance of motor skills by scholars worldwide. The studies typically focused on elite participants performing self-paced precision-aiming tasks during such

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Do Sitting, Standing, or Treadmill Desks Impact Psychobiological Indicators of Work Productivity?

Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Angela Renton, Norman Ng, and William von Hippel

study sought to investigate the impact of sit-only, sit–stand, and treadmill desk conditions on psychobiological indicators of work productivity. Specifically, we assessed brain activation during an attention task, recorded continuously via electroencephalography (EEG) at the end of workdays spent in an

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Identification of Apnea Events Using a Chest-Worn Monitor Compared to Laboratory-Based Polysomnography in Patients Suspected of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Eduardo Salazar, Mayank Gupta, Meynard Toledo, Qiao Wang, Pavan Turaga, James M. Parish, and Matthew P. Buman

fitted with an infrared camera and microphone where their PSG would take place. They were fitted with standard PSG monitoring equipment, including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), respiratory flow-sensing nasal cannula, submental electromyography (EMG), 2-lead electrocardiography

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The Effects of Subthreshold Vibratory Noise on Cortical Activity During Motor Imagery

Kishor Lakshminarayanan, Rakshit Shah, Yifei Yao, and Deepa Madathil

achieve this, we examined the cortical activity using electroencephalography (EEG) during kinesthetic MI with and without sensory stimulation. Machine learning techniques were applied to discriminate different MI task-based sensorimotor responses. It was hypothesized that sensory stimulation