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Sharon R. Phillips and Stephen Silverman

This study examined the attitudes of upper elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth and fifth grade students (N = 1344) from 13 school districts, 17 schools, and five states completed an attitude instrument with scores that had been previously validated for a two factor model (affect and cognition) and a four factor model (affect and cognition with the subfactors of teacher and curriculum). For the four factor model, there was a difference between grades for both affect-curriculum and affect-teacher (F(1, 1340) = 6.25, p < .01, ηp 2 = .005). Similarly, for the two factor model the affect variable was different between grades, indication that as students age their affect toward physical education decreases (F(1, 1341)= 48.65, p < .001, ηp 2 = .035). This study suggests that upper elementary school students have an overall favorable attitude toward physical education, impacted by how they think and feel about the curriculum and teacher.

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

benefits, it is recommended that children aged 6–17 years accrue at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day. 9 Several studies have provided evidence that elementary-school-aged children need at least 12,000 steps daily to reach this target. 10 – 12 As a large portion of children

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Erika Rees-Punia, Alicia Holloway, David Knauft and Michael D. Schmidt

activity and sedentary time. 7 Unfortunately, traditional opportunities for school-based physical activity are diminishing. Physical education, for example, occurs on a daily basis in only 4% of elementary schools and has been completely eliminated in some school districts. 8 With growing class sizes and

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Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi and Rebecca E. Hasson

. 9 The primary aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of sedentary screen-time breaks and intermittent physical activity, performed at varying intensities, on psychological mood and enjoyment in elementary school-age children. Our primary hypothesis was that 20 two-minute activity breaks

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Lena Zimmo, Fuad Almudahka, Izzeldin Ibrahim, Mohamed G. Al-kuwari and Abdulaziz Farooq

Literature Review The health benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are well known ( U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2008 ). Despite this knowledge, data show that only 25% of elementary school children in Qatar accumulate the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical

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Lindsey Turner, Jamie F. Chriqui and Frank J. Chaloupka

Background:

Active transportation to school provides an important way for children to meet physical activity recommendations. The “walking school bus” (WSB) is a strategy whereby adults walk with a group of children to and from school along a fixed route. This study assessed whether school-organized WSB programs varied by school characteristics, district policies, and state laws.

Methods:

School data were gathered by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of U.S. public elementary schools during the 2008−2009 and 2009−2010 school years (n = 632 and 666, respectively). Corresponding district policies and state laws were obtained.

Results:

Nationwide, 4.2% of schools organized a WSB program during 2008−2009, increasing to 6.2% by 2009−2010. Controlling for demographic covariates, schools were more likely to organize a WSB program where there was a strong district policy pertaining to safe active routes to school (OR = 2.14, P < .05), or a state law requiring crossing guards around schools (OR = 2.72, P < .05).

Conclusions:

WSB programs are not common but district policies and state laws are associated with an increased likelihood of elementary schools organizing these programs. Policymaking efforts may encourage schools to promote active transportation.

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Brandi M. Eveland-Sayers, Richard S. Farley, Dana K. Fuller, Don W. Morgan and Jennifer L. Caputo

Background:

The benefits of physical fitness are widely acknowledged and extend across many domains of wellness. The association between fitness and academic achievement, however, remains to be clarified, especially in young children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children.

Methods:

Data were collected from 134 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade children. One-mile run time, body mass index, curl-up, and sit-and-reach data were collected from physical education instructors in Middle Tennessee. The percentage of questions answered correctly for the mathematics and reading/language arts sections of the Terra-Nova achievement test was taken as a measure of academic achievement.

Results:

A negative association (P < .01) was noted between 1-mile run times and mathematics scores (r = –.28), whereas a positive relationship (P < .05) was observed between muscular fitness and mathematics scores (r = .20). Relative to sex differences, inverse relationships (P < .05) were observed between 1-mile run times and reading/language arts and mathematics scores in girls (r = –.31 and –.36, respectively), but no significant associations were evident in boys.

Conclusions:

Results from this study support a link between specific components of physical fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children.

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Jason C. Immekus, Franklin Muntis and Daniela Terson de Paleville

on children’s social behavior, concentration, and academic performance ( Carson et al., 2016 ; Haapala et al., 2017 ; Syväoja et al., 2013 ). Elementary school children who are more coordinated ( Da Silva Pacheco, Gabbard, Ries, & Bobbio, 2016 ) and have better postural control skills ( Knight

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Holly R. Huddleston, Vaughn Barry and Jennifer L. Caputo

Background:

The purpose was to characterize energy expenditure (EE) during academic subjects and activities during an elementary school day.

Methods:

Children in 2nd to 4th grades (N = 33) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 5 school days to measure EE. Teachers’ logs were compared with SWA data to extract information about EE throughout the day. Energy expenditure was also compared among grades.

Results:

After controlling for body mass, grade level was not a significant predictor of average daily caloric expenditure, F (2, 17.58) = .29, P = .75, ω2 = .05. When comparing activities throughout the day, relative rates of EE differed significantly, Wilks’ F (7, 23) = 52.2, P = .00, ηp 2 = .94, with PE and recess having higher EE. When academic subjects were compared (math, science, language arts), relative rate of EE was also significantly different, Wilks’ F (2, 30) = 4.31, P = .02, ηp 2 = .22. For the full sample, relative rate EE was higher in science than in language arts.

Conclusions:

The school day provides opportunity for EE for children. These data support the potential benefit of active instruction in language arts as a method to increase school day EE.

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Panos Constantinides and Stephen Silverman

has affected Cypriot children, ranking Cyprus among the top three countries in the European Union in childhood obesity rates ( Savva, Kourides, Hadjigeorgiou, & Tormaritis, 2014 ). Little is known about elementary school students’ attitudes toward physical education. A recent study ( Phillips