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Julianne A. Wenner, Kimberly M.B. Tucker, Hannah G. Calvert, Tyler G. Johnson and Lindsey Turner

capital; therefore, we framed our research in terms of Coleman’s ( 1988 ) components of social capital (trust, information networks, and norms). Furthermore, while issues of social capital and CSPAP implementation are relevant to all schools, this work focused solely on elementary settings due to several

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Heather Erwin, Mark Abel, Aaron Beighle, Melody P. Noland, Brooke Worley and Richard Riggs

Background:

Recess is an important component of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program, providing approximately 1268 and 914 steps for boys and girls, respectively, within a 15-minute time period. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of unstructured recess on children’s school-day physical activity levels and to examine if recess and school-day physical activity levels varied by BMI, gender, and grade level.

Methods:

One-hundred sixty third- to fifth-grade students from 2 elementary schools wore pedometers during 4 recess periods.

Results:

Recess accounted for 17% to 44% of school-day step counts. There was a significant main effect for grade level, but not for BMI or gender, on the percentage of school-day steps accumulated during recess.

Conclusions:

A 15-minute recess makes a valuable contribution to children’s school-day physical activity, especially for the least active children. More research is warranted to determine environmental influences on children’s recess physical activity.

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Panos Constantinides and Stephen Silverman

has affected Cypriot children, ranking Cyprus among the top three countries in the European Union in childhood obesity rates ( Savva, Kourides, Hadjigeorgiou, & Tormaritis, 2014 ). Little is known about elementary school students’ attitudes toward physical education. A recent study ( Phillips

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Tan Leng Goh, James Hannon, Collin Webster, Leslie Podlog and Maria Newton

Background:

Prolonged sitting at desks during the school day without a break may result in off-task behavior in students. This study was designed to examine the effects of a classroom physical activity intervention, using TAKE 10!, on elementary school students’ on-task behavior. Nine classes (3rd to 5th grades) from 1 elementary school participated in the program (4-week baseline and 8-week intervention).

Methods:

The students’ on-task behavior was measured using systematic direct observation. Observations occurred once a week during weeks 1 to 4 (baseline) and weeks 8 to 12 (intervention). A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare on-task behavior between observation periods.

Results:

There was a significant decrease (P = .001) in mean percentage on-task behavior from preno TAKE 10! (91.2 ± 3.4) to postno TAKE 10! (83.5 ± 4.0) during the baseline period, whereas there was a significant increase (P = .001) in mean percentage on-task behavior from pre-TAKE 10! (82.3 ± 4.5) to post-TAKE 10! (89.5 ± 2.7) during the intervention period.

Conclusions:

Furthermore, students who received more daily TAKE 10! were found to be more on-task than students who received less TAKE 10!. The TAKE 10! program is effective in improving students’ on-task behavior in the classroom.

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Michael Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Chong Lee and Ja Youn Kwon

Students of all ages have documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). However, improving students HRFK may require a change in teacher practices and professional development (PD).

Purpose:

This study, framed by Guskey’s Model of Teacher Change (GMTC; Guskey, 2002), sought to assist teachers’ HRFK instruction as part of their physical education curriculum and practices. Initially, researchers examined: (a) teachers’ perceptions of health-related fitness knowledge instruction, followed by, (b) selected teachers’ perceptions of the professional development (PD) methods and the approach to teaching HRFK.

Method:

Semistructured interviews were conducted among elementary physical education teachers’ (N = 9) in one suburban school district. A randomly selected smaller group of teachers (n = 5), had PD on Knowledge in Action Lesson Segments (KIALS), an approach to teaching HRFK. Teachers were asked to implement KIALS into their fifth grade physical education classes and interviewed two additional times.

Results:

Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK is critical but I can’t get to it; (b) If you show it, they will implement it; and (c) Knowledge in Action gets the job done.

Conclusion:

PD procedures in this study and KIALS were seen as favorable. Results paralleled GMTC principles, as researchers confirmed quality PD, and observations of positive student outcomes further reinforced teachers’ beliefs. Teachers also expressed a willingness to continue using KIALS after the completion of this study, concluding achievement of the final fourth principal of the change process. Findings suggested that KIALS, if presented with similar PD will be well-received by teachers supporting their efforts to improve student HRFK outcomes.

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Laura Prior and Matthew Curtner-Smith

the effects of socialization on teachers’ beliefs and values and subsequent curriculum design is dated, has been incidental, and carried out in the secondary setting. Comparatively, little research had been conducted in the elementary setting, and, to our knowledge, there is no published work

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Laura J. Petranek, Nicole D. Bolter and Ken Bell

for this study from an elementary school located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Participants were primarily White (86%) and upper middle class; only 12% of the school’s student population received free and reduced cost lunch, which is used as a proxy for low socioeconomic status

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Erika Rees-Punia, Alicia Holloway, David Knauft and Michael D. Schmidt

activity and sedentary time. 7 Unfortunately, traditional opportunities for school-based physical activity are diminishing. Physical education, for example, occurs on a daily basis in only 4% of elementary schools and has been completely eliminated in some school districts. 8 With growing class sizes and

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

benefits, it is recommended that children aged 6–17 years accrue at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day. 9 Several studies have provided evidence that elementary-school-aged children need at least 12,000 steps daily to reach this target. 10 – 12 As a large portion of children

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Riley Galloway, Robert Booker and Scott Owens

Prevention, 2013a ; Society of Health and Physical Educators America, 2016 ; Springer, Tanguturi, Ranjit, Skala, & Kelder, 2013 ), which would equate to students needing an 30 extra minutes of MVPA outside of the school setting on school days. Among 295 elementary school children, segmental PA