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Sharon R. Phillips and Stephen Silverman

This study examined the attitudes of upper elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth and fifth grade students (N = 1344) from 13 school districts, 17 schools, and five states completed an attitude instrument with scores that had been previously validated for a two factor model (affect and cognition) and a four factor model (affect and cognition with the subfactors of teacher and curriculum). For the four factor model, there was a difference between grades for both affect-curriculum and affect-teacher (F(1, 1340) = 6.25, p < .01, ηp 2 = .005). Similarly, for the two factor model the affect variable was different between grades, indication that as students age their affect toward physical education decreases (F(1, 1341)= 48.65, p < .001, ηp 2 = .035). This study suggests that upper elementary school students have an overall favorable attitude toward physical education, impacted by how they think and feel about the curriculum and teacher.

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Daniela G.L. Terson de Paleville and Jason C. Immekus

. The authors reported that symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention were also improved in the yoga group. Despite the evidence in support of yoga’s benefits for elementary school-aged students, 18 – 28 several potentially influential factors require further investigation, including the heterogeneity

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Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara

, Espelage, & Koenig, 2009 ) have each emerged as predictors of academic engagement and success ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010 ). The importance of recess—which most elementary school children experience every day either indoors or outdoors ( McNamara, Vaantaja, Dunseith, & Franklin, 2014

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Wen-Yen Tseng, Ghazi Rekik, Chia-Hui Chen, Filipe M. Clemente, Pedro Bezerra, Zachary J. Crowley-McHattan, and Yung-Sheng Chen

endurance, flexibility, and balance capacity in elementary school children. 5 Another aspect of positive development within children is to maximize their learning potential while in class. Executive functions are a key element in the learning process and the level of academic achievement in children. 6 , 7

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay, and Lindsey Turner

benefits, it is recommended that children aged 6–17 years accrue at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day. 9 Several studies have provided evidence that elementary-school-aged children need at least 12,000 steps daily to reach this target. 10 – 12 As a large portion of children

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Hannah G. Calvert, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter, and Jamie F. Chriqui

the day, as well as health outcomes. 7 Despite this, national data show that only 3% of secondary schools have fully implemented a CSPAP, 8 whereas no national-level data currently exist regarding CSPAP implementation in elementary schools. Physical education is considered to be the cornerstone of a

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Erika Rees-Punia, Alicia Holloway, David Knauft, and Michael D. Schmidt

activity and sedentary time. 7 Unfortunately, traditional opportunities for school-based physical activity are diminishing. Physical education, for example, occurs on a daily basis in only 4% of elementary schools and has been completely eliminated in some school districts. 8 With growing class sizes and

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Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi, and Rebecca E. Hasson

. 9 The primary aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of sedentary screen-time breaks and intermittent physical activity, performed at varying intensities, on psychological mood and enjoyment in elementary school-age children. Our primary hypothesis was that 20 two-minute activity breaks

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Stephanie Truelove, Andrew M. Johnson, Shauna M. Burke, and Patricia Tucker

Engaging in physical activity during childhood is extremely important, as it helps children develop the skills and confidence to remain active throughout their lifespan ( Hardman, 2011 ). As Canadian elementary school children (i.e., kindergarten to Grade 8) spend the majority of their waking hours

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Lena Zimmo, Fuad Almudahka, Izzeldin Ibrahim, Mohamed G. Al-kuwari, and Abdulaziz Farooq

Literature Review The health benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are well known ( U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2008 ). Despite this knowledge, data show that only 25% of elementary school children in Qatar accumulate the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical