Evaluating time properly is crucial for everyday activities from fundamental behaviors to refined coordinative movements such as in sport playing. Lately the concept of the existence of a unique internal clock for evaluating time in different scales has been challenged by recent neurophysiology studies. Here we provide evidence that individuals evaluate time durations below and above a second based on two different internal clocks for sub- and suprasecond time ranges: a faster clock for the subsecond range and a slower one for suprasecond time. Interestingly, the level of precision presented by these two clocks can be finely tuned through long-term sport training: Elite athletes, independently from their sport domains, generate better time estimates than nonathletes by showing higher accuracy and lower variability, particularly for subsecond time. We interpret this better time estimation in the short durations as being due to their extraordinary perceptual and motor ability in fast actions.
Yin-Hua Chen and Paola Cesari
Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins, and Sheelagh Rodgers
Significant sport literature has focused on the psychological factors required by elite athletes to convert their potential into world-class performance ( Collins, MacNamara, & McCarthy, 2016 ; MacNamara, Button, & Collins, 2010 ; MacNamara & Collins, 2015 ; Orlick & Partington, 1988 ) as well
Charli Sargent, Michele Lastella, Shona L. Halson, and Gregory D. Roach
The true function of sleep is not yet fully understood, but it plays an important role in energy conservation, 1 nervous system recuperation, 2 host-defense mechanisms, 3 and restoration of optimal performance 4 —all of which are critical for elite athletes. The amount of sleep required to
Craig Pickering and John Kiely
Over the last 30 years, our appreciation of how genetics influences elite sport performance has grown exponentially, with previous estimates of the heritability of elite athlete status within a population reported to be approximately 66%. 1 Similarly, our understanding of how specific genetic
Özlem Feyzioğlu, Özgul Öztürk, Bilsen Sirmen, and Selim Muğrabi
of such an accelerated program on nonathletes and compared its clinical results with elite athletes. From this point of view, our study aim was to compare the same accelerated rehabilitation program’s functional outcomes between elite athletes and nonathletes. We hypothesized that an accelerated
Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, and Serge Brand
, & Fletcher, 2009 ). This also applies to junior elite sport, as young elite athletes may encounter issues related to being an adolescent (e.g., increasing responsibility and social pressures), being a student (e.g., increasing school demands), and being an athlete (e.g., increasing training loads
Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen, and Gretchen Kerr
; Freeman, Rees, & Hardy, 2009 ; Sheridan, Coffee, & Lavallee, 2014 ). Although support providers are important figures within the lives of athletes, there is little research that has aimed to understand the provision of support to elite athletes and the views of athletes’ support providers. Therefore
Carlos A. Muniesa, Zoraida Verde, Germán Diaz-Ureña, Catalina Santiago, Fernando Gutiérrez, Enrique Díaz, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Luisa Soares-Miranda, and Alejandro Lucia
Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation.
The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114).
The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.
At some point, elite athletes will undoubtedly find themselves in a situation when their active elite career is finished. Career termination is one of the various naturally occurring transition phases elite athletes encounter, and career transitions often affect several parts of life at different
Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips
Elite athletes regularly expend high amounts of energy during training and competition. Weight loss in elite athletes, if desired, is commonly achieved by the introduction of a caloric deficit that consists of restriction of dietary energy combined with their training. Elite athletes undergo