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Stuart Cathcart, Matt McGregor and Emma Groundwater

Mindfulness has been found to be related to improved athletic performance and propensity to achieve flow states. The relationship between mindfulness and flow has only recently been examined in elite athletes. To build on this literature, we administered the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Dispositional Flow Scale to 92 elite athletes. Psychometric analyses supported the validity of the FFMQ. Males scored higher than females on the FFMQ facet of Nonjudging of Inner Experience. Athletes from individual and pacing sports scored higher on the FFMQ facet of Observing than athletes from team-based and nonpacing sports. Correlations between mindfulness and flow were stronger in athletes from individual and pacing sports compared with team-based and nonpacing sports. Mindfulness correlated with different facets of flow in males compared with females. The results support the use of the five-facet mindfulness construct in elite athletes and suggest the relationship between mindfulness and flow possibly may vary by gender and sport type in this population.

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Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

international athletes from a population representative sample in the Netherlands and Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium) reported to have experienced sexual violence of any kind in sport. Prevalence rates in German elite athletes, that is competitive athletes who represent their region or country

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Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins and Sheelagh Rodgers

Significant sport literature has focused on the psychological factors required by elite athletes to convert their potential into world-class performance ( Collins, MacNamara, & McCarthy, 2016 ; MacNamara, Button, & Collins, 2010 ; MacNamara & Collins, 2015 ; Orlick & Partington, 1988 ) as well

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Özlem Feyzioğlu, Özgul Öztürk, Bilsen Sirmen and Selim Muğrabi

of such an accelerated program on nonathletes and compared its clinical results with elite athletes. From this point of view, our study aim was to compare the same accelerated rehabilitation program’s functional outcomes between elite athletes and nonathletes. We hypothesized that an accelerated

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Carlos A. Muniesa, Zoraida Verde, Germán Diaz-Ureña, Catalina Santiago, Fernando Gutiérrez, Enrique Díaz, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Luisa Soares-Miranda and Alejandro Lucia

Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation.

Methods:

The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results:

Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114).

Conclusions:

The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

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Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler and Serge Brand

, & Fletcher, 2009 ). This also applies to junior elite sport, as young elite athletes may encounter issues related to being an adolescent (e.g., increasing responsibility and social pressures), being a student (e.g., increasing school demands), and being an athlete (e.g., increasing training loads

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

Elite athletes regularly expend high amounts of energy during training and competition. Weight loss in elite athletes, if desired, is commonly achieved by the introduction of a caloric deficit that consists of restriction of dietary energy combined with their training. Elite athletes undergo

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

having fun, enhancing one’s level of physical fitness and health, the social components of sport via making friends and connections, and competition were major facilitators to participation for British elite athletes with spinal cord injury. They also found that those who were active prior to their

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Alexander David Blackett, Adam B. Evans and David Piggott

; Lara-Bercial & Mallett, 2016 ; Watts & Cushion, 2017 ; Werthner & Trudel, 2009 ). These studies show that it is commonplace for high-performance coaches to have prior experience as elite athletes in their respective sports. Such a finding has been frequently reported in other research situated in the

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

active or untrained subjects 8 , 10 – 12 and only 1 study to date has assessed trained athletes (cyclists). 9 Therefore, there is little or no evidence on the effectiveness of tDCS for enhancing endurance performance in elite athletes or in self-paced exercises. The main goal of our study was to analyze