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Aditi Mankad, Sandy Gordon and Karen Wallman

The present study adopted a qualitative, exploratory approach to describe the underlying emotional climate among injured athletes within team sport environments. Nine elite athletes undergoing long-term injury rehabilitation (LTIR) participated in semi-structured interviews to describe their LTIR experience. A general inductive analysis extracted three higher-order themes: (a) emotional trauma, (b) emotional climate, and (c) emotional acting. Athletes reported experiencing emotional trauma throughout LTIR. To maintain in-group norms, they described engaging in avoidance behaviors and reported suppressing negative affect for fear of negative evaluation. They also reported frequently controlling emotions in public using acting strategies. Athletes perceived these emotionally inhibitive behaviors as encouraged within their team environment. These results have important implications for the identification and treatment of emotionally destructive behaviors that could potentially delay an athlete’s psychological rehabilitation from athletic injury.

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Katherine A. Tamminen, Patrick Gaudreau, Carolyn E. McEwen and Peter R.E. Crocker

Efforts to regulate emotions can influence others, and interpersonal emotion regulation within teams may affect athletes’ own affective and motivational outcomes. We examined adolescent athletes’ (N = 451, N teams = 38) self- and interpersonal emotion regulation, as well as associations with peer climate, sport enjoyment, and sport commitment within a multilevel model of emotion regulation in teams. Results of multilevel Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that athletes’ self-worsening emotion regulation strategies were negatively associated with enjoyment while other-improving emotion regulation strategies were positively associated enjoyment and commitment. The team-level interpersonal emotion regulation climate and peer motivational climates were also associated with enjoyment and commitment. Team-level factors moderated some of the relationships between athletes’ emotion regulation with enjoyment and commitment. These findings extend previous research by examining interpersonal emotion regulation within teams using a multilevel approach, and they demonstrate the importance of person- and team-level factors for athletes’ enjoyment and commitment.

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Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte and Nicholas L. Holt

Parents exert a powerful influence on their children’s sporting experiences via the emotional climate they create. This emotional climate can be conveyed in numerous settings, including the family home ( Holt, Tamminen, Black, Mandigo, & Fox, 2009 ), during car rides ( Tamminen, Poucher

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Angela Robles

-athlete relationship. She shared how having a “coachable attitude” allowed her to learn from literally anyone: teammates, other players, and various coaches. Laura’s dominant relationship building strengths allowed her to fed off the energy and emotional climate of her team. Athletes who have more relational

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Camilla J. Knight

identified and considered such factors. For instance, research has highlighted the importance of considering parental behaviors in the parenting style adopted by parents. Parenting style is the overall emotional climate created by parents, and it is in this parenting style that specific behaviors are

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Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon and K. Andrew R. Richards

abilities, in turn, can help PE teachers react differently to those students by regulating their aroused emotions and using them to create appropriate emotional climate within the class. For example, physical educators who recognize that their students are bored may respond by stopping the activity and

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Stephanie Mueller, Montse C. Ruiz and Stiliani Ani Chroni

in the facilitation of an optimal emotional climate. Guiding coaches direct their attention to specific aspects of emotion expression in their athletes may improve their perception, and thus, increase the effectiveness of the inferences about their athletes’ internal states. This in turn, may enhance

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Carolyn E. McEwen, Laura Hurd Clarke, Erica V. Bennett, Kimberley A. Dawson and Peter R.E. Crocker

the inside. The qualification process was a source of high organizational stress for Steven. He had been training and competing in a negative emotional climate and felt that he had no option but to engage in “toxic” interpersonal relationships with members of his sport organization to achieve his goal