the Temporal Influence Model of Emotion Regulation, the strategies used to impact motor performance through emotional regulation are different depending on the time constraint ( Beatty & Janelle, 2019 ). A PPR is useful in a time abundant context when athletes do not have to perform the motor tasks as
Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum
Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte, and Nicholas L. Holt
three sequential levels: the first level relates to the basic emotional skills of emotional appraisal; the second level represents a more complex component of emotional knowledge, such as emotional use and understanding; and the third level addresses emotional regulation as the key dimension of EI that
K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn, and Ye Hoon Lee
teaching, physical educators must also interact with other key stakeholders, including teaching colleagues, administrators, and parents ( Richards, 2015 ). These interactions require further emotional regulation to manage negative feelings, avoid expressing negative emotions, and display a positive image
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols
EDs requires specialty training and targets to improve interpersonal boundaries, communication, and emotional regulation. The MHCP assists in evaluating the athlete’s mental status and readiness to return to sport participation. Evidence-Based Psychotherapy A variety of evidence
Lenka, H. Shriver, Gena Wollenberg, and Gail E. Gates
The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted.
Katherine A. Tamminen and Peter R.E. Crocker
This paper is a critical commentary on the article “Adaptation Processes Affecting Performance in Elite Sport” (Schinke, Battochio, Lidor, Tenenbaum, Dube, & Lane, 2012). We review relevant literature and highlight theoretical and conceptual concerns regarding Schinke et al.’s model, particularly regarding their characterization of adaptation as a process versus an outcome, and the role of appraisals, emotions, emotional regulation, coping, and Fiske’s (2004) core motives within their model of adaptation. Adaptation or adjustment among elite athletes is a valuable area of research in sport psychology; however, Schinke et al.’s model oversimplifies the adaptation process and has limited utility among sport psychology researchers and practitioners.
Tarkington J. Newman, Fernando Santos, António Cardoso, and Paulo Pereira
Coaches’ role in positive youth development (PYD) has been extensively studied around the globe. Coach education has been considered crucial in helping foster PYD outcomes, such as emotional regulation, goal setting, and leadership. Thus, several researchers have attempted to provide a comprehensive understanding about how experiential learning could be utilized within PYD-focused coach education programs. The purpose of this article was to provide insight on the implications for research and practice associated with the integration of experiential learning opportunities within PYD-focused coach education. The authors shed light on how the existent literature on experiential learning may help bridge the gap between the delivery of PYD-focused coach education programs and actual coaching practices. Implications for research and practice are discussed in order to provide insight on how PYD-focused coach education programs could be configured to effectively train coaches and enhance their ability to promote PYD outcomes, such as life skill development, among youth athletes across a range of contexts.
Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna R. Dillon
As the first step of an instrument development, teaching challenges that occur when students with autism spectrum disorders are educated in general physical education were elicited using Goldfried and D’Zurilla’s (1969) behavioral-analytic model. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 43 certified physical educators (29 women and 14 men) using a demographic questionnaire and an elicitation questionnaire. Participants listed 225 teaching challenges, 46% related to cooperative, 31% to competitive, and 24% to individualistic learning situations. Teaching challenges were categorized into nine themes: inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, social impairment, emotional regulation difficulties, difficulties understanding and performing tasks, narrow focus and inflexible adherence to routines and structure, isolation by classmates, negative effects on classmates’ learning, and need for support.
Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Emma Sherry, and Nora Shields
The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes in a global and sport-specific context were investigated across subjective psychological, social, and physical health and well-being dimensions. Data were drawn from (a) semistructured interviews with Australian para-athletes (n = 23), (b) a focus group with the Australian Paralympic Committee (n = 9), and (c) a confirmatory para-athlete focus group (n = 8). The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes differed across gender, sport, level of competition, and nature of impairment. Well-being needs were an interaction between physical pain, emotional regulation, lacking purpose outside of sport, and a lack of self-acceptance, especially for athletes with acquired impairments. Well-being strengths were perceived to increase as athletes increased their level of competition, and included personal growth, optimism, strong social support networks, and contributing to multiple communities. The importance of well-being as a multidimensional concept within the global and sport-specific context for para-athletes is discussed.
Psychological skills such as goal setting, imagery, relaxation and self-talk have been used in performance enhancement, emotional regulation, and increasing one’s confidence and/or motivation in sport. These skills can also be applied with athletes during recovery from injury in the rehabilitation setting or in preseason meetings for preventing injury. Research on psychological skill use with athletes has shown that such skills have helped reduce negative psychological outcomes, improve coping skills, and reduce reinjury anxiety (Evans & Hardy, 2002; Johnson, 2000; Mankad & Gordon, 2010). Although research has been limited in psychological skill implementation with injured athletes, these skills can be used when working with injured athletes or in the prevention of injury. Injured athletes may use psychological skills such as setting realistic goals in coming back from injury, imagery to facilitate rehabilitation, and relaxation techniques to deal with pain management. In prevention of injury, the focus is on factors that put an individual at-risk for injury. Thus, teaching strategies of goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, and attention/focus can be instrumental in preparing athletes for a healthy season.