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Jamie L. Shapiro, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius and Judy L. Van Raalte

The purposes of this study were to investigate patterns of emotional response to reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee following sport injury and to examine the extent to which neuroticism differed across patterns of adjustment. Participants were 73 patients (51% recreational athletes, 46% competitive athletes, 3% nonathletes) who had ACL reconstruction surgery and who had low levels of negative mood before surgery. Participants completed measures of personality and negative mood before surgery and completed daily assessments of negative mood for 6 weeks postsurgery. The negative mood of participants was classified into three patterns for two different time periods. Participants with patterns of resilience outnumbered those with patterns of disturbance. Participants with patterns involving mood disturbance one week after surgery had significantly higher presurgery neuroticism levels. Practitioners should target individuals with high neuroticism before surgery for emotion management interventions to prevent mood disturbance following ACL surgery.

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Lynne Halley Johnston and Douglas Carroll

This study used grounded theory to describe the emotional responses of athletes following injury and their situational and temporal contexts. Sixteen seriously injured athletes were interviewed. The NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) computer program was used to search, store, explore, and organize the qualitative material. The main emotional responses, appraisals, events, and behaviors that emerged from the analysis were represented diagrammatically. Frustration and depression were the prevalent emotional responses throughout rehabilitation, although the situational corollaries differed as recovery progressed. In the early phase of rehabilitation, frustration and depression resulted from disruption to normal function, in the middle phase they were provoked by a negative appraisal of rehabilitation progress, and. at the end of rehabilitation the main instigator was impatience to return to sport. Whether to risk returning prematurely to sport emerged as a key theme, as did the confounding effects of exercise withdrawal. symptoms in extremely committed athletes. The results were considered in terms of both cognitive appraisal and risk models.

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Brian V. Gallagher and Frank L. Gardner

The present study examined the relationship between cognitive vulnerabilities, coping strategy, and emotional response to athletic injury among 40 NCAA Division I injured athletes. It was hypothesized that the presence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and avoidant coping strategies would predict greater emotional distress among injured athletes. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form, which injured athletes completed upon injury. Coping strategies were measured by the Coping Response Inventory Adult Form, which was completed upon the completion of recovery. The Profile of Mood States was used to assess mood, and was completed during three phases of injury: upon injury, middle of rehabilitation, and upon recovery. As predicted, hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrate that EMSs and avoidance-focused coping were associated with higher levels of negative mood among injured athletes. The results also indicate that the relationship between EMS and mood vary based on the phase of injury, suggesting that different EMSs are differentially related to subtle differences in stressors encountered during each phase of the injury process.

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Fraser Carson and Remco C. J. Polman

The aim of this case study was to investigate the emotional factors and coping strategies used by a professional rugby union player during rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A dominant (qualitative) - less dominant (quantitative) mixed methodological approach was established concurrent with the athlete’s rehabilitation. Twice monthly interviews and a self-report diary were completed throughout the rehabilitation process. Six questionnaires were used to assess specific aspects of injury rehabilitation identified from previous literature, including emotional response, coping, social support, and perceived autonomy. Content analysis of each phase of the rehabilitation process established 34 higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: Influential Emotions or Coping Strategies. Findings highlight the benefit of problem-focused coping to improve autonomy and confidence. A sequential movement through a series of emotions (shock, depression, relief, encouragement, and confidence building) was also identified.

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Duncan Simpson and Lauren P. Elberty

& Walker, 2008 ) and depression ( Belitsky & Jacobs, 1986 ). These strong negative emotions are not mutually exclusive and are often intertwined with each other during the grieving process. As well as emotional responses to death there is also usually a range of physical (e.g., fatigue, tightness in the

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Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen and Uffe Jørgensen

and persistent negative emotional responses, such as anxiety, fear, grief, confusion, isolation, and depression. 4 – 7 Depression was the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis in adults during the year after a minor injury requiring emergency care, 8 whereas professional footballers experienced more

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Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson

The researchers explore consumers’ emotional responses toward athlete brands by developing the associative evaluation–emotional appraisal–intention (AEI) model. The AEI postulates that unconscious (implicit attitudes) and conscious (explicit affective attitudes) levels of emotional responses systematically flow following assessments of perceived fit in athlete endorsements. Implicit attitudes were measured through the implicit association test, whereas pleasure, arousal, and pride captured explicit affective attitudes. Contrary to dominant beliefs about successful athlete endorsements, findings from a lab experiment indicate that low perceived fit affected implicit attitudes, which in turn affected arousal for consumers with high involvement. Pleasure, arousal, and pride were interrelated and systematically determined behavioral intentions of viewership and online friendship with athletes. Studies investigating athlete brands and endorsement success should consider the influence of both implicit and explicit attitudes on fan behavior. Managers should strategically utilize both low and high fit endorsements to facilitate emotional experiences and optimize desired consumption behavior.

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Ralph A. Vernacchia, James R. Reardon and David R. Templin

This study presents the case of a male university basketball player who died of a heart attack caused by an abnormal heart rhythm (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) and describes the various emotional stages his teammates and coaches experienced during the days and months following this tragic incident. The team’s emotional responses to their teammates’ sudden death were categorized into several stages: shock, confusion, and denial; performance resolve; realization of loss; glorification and memorialization; closure and relief; avoidance and debriefing; reentry and acceptance. A modified critical incident stress debriefing process was used by educational and clinical sport psychologists who collaborated to manage and provide care-giving services to team members and coaches.

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Agnès Bonnet, Lydia Fernandez, Annie Piolat and Jean-Louis Pedinielli

The notion of risk-taking implies a cognitive process that determines the level of risk involved in a particular activity or task. This risk appraisal process gives rise to emotional responses, including anxious arousal and changes in mood, which may play a significant role in risk-related decision making. This study examines how emotional responses to the perceived risk of a scuba-diving injury contribute to divers’ behavior, as well as the ways that risk taking or non-risk taking behavior, in turn, affects emotional states. The study sample consisted of 131 divers (risk takers and non-risk takers), who either had or had not been in a previous diving accident. Divers’ emotional states were assessed immediately prior to diving, as well as immediately following a dive. Results indicated presence of subjective emotional experiences that are specific to whether a risk has been perceived and whether a risk has been taken. Important differences in emotion regulation were also found between divers who typically take risks and those who do not.

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Jennifer Leo and Donna Goodwin

Disability simulations have been used as a pedagogical tool to simulate the functional and cultural experiences of disability. Despite their widespread application, disagreement about their ethical use, value, and efficacy persists. The purpose of this study was to understand how postsecondary kinesiology students experienced participation in disability simulations. An interpretative phenomenological approach guided the study’s collection of journal entries and clarifying one-on-one interviews with four female undergraduate students enrolled in a required adapted physical activity course. The data were analyzed thematically and interpreted using the conceptual framework of situated learning. Three themes transpired: unnerving visibility, negotiating environments differently, and tomorrow I’ll be fine. The students described emotional responses to the use of wheelchairs as disability artifacts, developed awareness of environmental barriers to culturally and socially normative activities, and moderated their discomfort with the knowledge they could end the simulation at any time.