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Nicholas Stanger, Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

Aggression has been linked to empathy and emotions (e.g., guilt) in cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of empathy on emotional reactions to aggression and the role of guilt in the empathy–aggression relationship. Seventy-one undergraduate sport and exercise science students with a mean age of 19.56 (SD = 1.94) years were randomly assigned to either a high- or a low-empathy group. We experimentally manipulated empathy using perspective taking instructions and examined the following: (a) participants’ emotional reactions to images of aggressive acts; (b) their reported likelihood to aggress in a hypothetical sport situation; and (c) the extent to which they anticipated feeling guilt if they were to engage in an aggressive act. Participants in the high-empathy group experienced stronger negative emotional reactions to images of aggressive acts and reported lower likelihood to aggress than did those in the low-empathy group. Anticipated guilt partially mediated the effects of empathy on reported likelihood to aggress. Our findings suggest that empathy may help reduce aggressive behavior and highlight the potential mediating role of guilt.

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Shannon David and Mary Larson

’s work is that of expressing empathy. 6 , 7 Empathy, as defined by Rogers, 7 is a skill that combines the health care professional’s commitment to understanding the patient’s experience followed by the ability to communicate the meaning of the patient’s experience by listening attentively and

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Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

defined by their respective properties and dimensions. Axial coding involved pinpointing relationships between categories to further develop concepts and themes ( Corbin & Strauss, 2008 ). For example, the concept of empathy was an emergent feature to participants’ perceptions of coach leadership and

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Nicholas Stanger, Maria Kavussanu, David McIntyre and Christopher Ring

Although the empathy–aggression relationship has been well documented, research has yet to establish whether emotions mediate and gender moderates this relationship in athletes, under conditions of low and high provocation. In this experiment, we assigned team-sport athletes to either a high (n = 40) or a low (n = 40) empathy group, and asked them to compete in a reaction-time task against a (fictitious) opponent, under conditions of low and high provocation. Empathy reduced aggression (i.e., intensity of electrical shock administered to the opponent) at low provocation in men, and at both low and high provocation in women. Guilt mediated the effect of empathy on aggression at low provocation in men; anger did not mediate any effects of empathy on aggression. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of empathy on aggression and the mediating role of guilt are moderated by provocation and gender.

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Kimberly S. Peer

Values guide behaviors, and consistent behaviors guide practice. Professionals are bound by social contracts to provide high-quality services with the interest of the patient as the primary consideration. Most healthcare professions have a codified standard for ethical behavior, however, the manifestation of ethical decisions can violate the social contract if not carefully considered. Healthcare professions have experienced considerable empathy decline and moral distress both in professional preparation and clinical practice. These emerging trends have created concerns about the structure and function of ethics education in the health professions. Several conceptual, pedagogical strategies have been promoted to engage learners in purposeful reflection about ethical dilemmas. Healthcare educators need to consider different strategies for encouraging ethical reflection and engagement to prevent moral distress and empathy decline. Various pedagogical strategies are discussed with a conceptual framework proposed for reconsidering ethics education in healthcare professions.

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David Light Shields, Christopher D. Funk and Brenda Light Bredemeier

Researchers have made productive use of Bandura’s (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of “bracketed morality” found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

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Melissa Pangelinan, Marc Norcross, Megan MacDonald, Mary Rudisill, Danielle Wadsworth and James McDonald

community, as well as increased interpersonal and professional skills ( de Groot, Alexander, Culp, & Keith, 2015 ; Graber, Chodzko-Zajko, O’Connor, & Linker, 2017 ; Wood et al., 2017 ). Beyond these outcomes, experiential learning opens opportunities for students to gain exposure to, build empathy for

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

and Social Responsibility Questionnaire ( 26 ) (scores range: 1–6) I respect others; I help others; I am kind to others Caring A sense of sympathy and empathy for others Perceived empathy/sympathy (4 items) Sympathy Scale ( 14 ) (scores range: 1–6) I feel upset when I see a girl getting her feelings

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Daniel S. Kirschenbaum, William D. Parham and Shane M. Murphy

Sport psychology services were provided at the 1991 U.S. Olympic Festival. A consultation model was employed that included aspects of the traditional medical model and a more proactive preventive approach. Consultations were delivered using a “professional/clinical” style (i.e., emphasis on expertness, empathy, warmth, and congruence). Two sport psychologists provided 85 formal consultations to more than 300 athletes, coaches, staff members, and others from 16 different sports. Process and outcome evaluations suggested that these services were very well received. Eleven recommendations are provided for delivery of sport psychology services at future Olympic events.

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Thomas J. Martinek and William B. Karper

The purpose of this study was to describe the operation of teacher expectancy effects within two instructional climates of elementary physical education classes. Specifically, high and low expectancy groups were compared during noncompetitive and competitive instruction in terms of teacher-student interaction and perceived expression of effort. Four alternating experimental phases of instruction were employed. Analysis of the interaction data revealed that low expectancy students received significantly more praise and encouragement during the first (noncompetitive) phase and the fourth (competitive) phase than did high expectancy students. They also received significantly more empathy from their teachers during both competitive phases of instruction. High expectancy students were perceived to exhibit significantly more effort than low expectancy students during all four phases.