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Sandi L. Pruitt and Andrew E. Springer


Evidence of an association between employment and physical activity (PA) in youth has been mixed, with studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We examined the association between employment and PA among U.S. high school students as measured by self-reported overall PA, vigorous exercise, and participation in school athletic teams.


We employed a secondary analysis using weighted linear regression to a sample of black and white 10th grade (n = 12073) and 12th grade students (n = 5500) drawn from the nationally representative cross-sectional 2004 Monitoring the Future Study.


Overall, 36.5% of 10th and 74.6% of 12th grade students were employed. In multivariable analyses, 10th graders working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA and exercise and those working >20 hours a week reported less participation in team sports. Among 12th graders, any level of employment was associated with lower rates of team sports; those working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA; and those working >20 hours reported less exercise.


Employment at and above 10 hours per week is negatively associated with PA. Increasing work intensity may shed light on the decline of PA as adolescents grow older and merits further attention in research.

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Stewart Cotterill

offer little job security to the practitioner, with payment often made in arrears via invoices based on, at best, flexible employment contracts ( Guest, 2004 ). Second, the employment of external practitioners by a client often bypasses normal human-resources processes, meaning there may be no clear job

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Liz Sattler and Rebecca Achen

). The site also identifies education as a key component of their business model. Specifically, the site seeks to inform both universities and students on the types of positions and salaries available to those seeking employment in the sport industry. Although networking and personal recommendations

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R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker

important, yet rarely remarked on, aspect of employment morality and sport labor studies. The Precarity of Sport Work Workers who engage in part-time, insecure, and unprotected work are identified as precarious workers. The identification of an increase in precarious work has led to the recognition of a new

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Bryndan W. Lindsey, Ali Boolani, Justin J. Merrigan, Nelson Cortes, Shane V. Caswell, and Joel R. Martin

many occupations require prolonged periods of sitting, it is likely that alterations to working environments during the COVID-19 pandemic may have unintended consequences on the physical activity levels of working adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether employment status

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Ellea Bachmeier, and Taylor Mair

psychology professionals’ specialization and employment, an indirect indication of gender stereotyping and representation ( Fink, 2016 ; Hardin & Greer, 2009 ). This study, therefore, examined the data from Certified Mental Performance Consultants (CMPCs), who are mostly based in the United States, as the

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Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci

This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.

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John H. Challis

-related indices can be divided into four categories (admissions, support, publications, and employment): their weightings were Students Indices—34% Admissions —12% Selectivity—2% GRE: verbal—5% GRE: quantitative—5% Graduate assistant support —13% Doctoral publications —2% Employment —7% Postdoctoral

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Janet B. Parks

This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.

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John Wilson

The restrictive covenants contained in the professional baseball player’s standard contract can be justified on grounds of being the most efficient solution to the problem of transaction costs in an industry where the difficulty of selecting and managing talent is acute. Contract law legitimates these restrictive covenants. Closer scrutiny of the history and sociopolitical context of the employment relationship in baseball underlines the role of power differentials in determining the parameters within which transacting for labor takes place. Not only the reserve clause but also the negative covenant in the player’s contract has been important in providing the conditions for the efficient trading of players.