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Sandi L. Pruitt and Andrew E. Springer


Evidence of an association between employment and physical activity (PA) in youth has been mixed, with studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We examined the association between employment and PA among U.S. high school students as measured by self-reported overall PA, vigorous exercise, and participation in school athletic teams.


We employed a secondary analysis using weighted linear regression to a sample of black and white 10th grade (n = 12073) and 12th grade students (n = 5500) drawn from the nationally representative cross-sectional 2004 Monitoring the Future Study.


Overall, 36.5% of 10th and 74.6% of 12th grade students were employed. In multivariable analyses, 10th graders working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA and exercise and those working >20 hours a week reported less participation in team sports. Among 12th graders, any level of employment was associated with lower rates of team sports; those working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA; and those working >20 hours reported less exercise.


Employment at and above 10 hours per week is negatively associated with PA. Increasing work intensity may shed light on the decline of PA as adolescents grow older and merits further attention in research.

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Stewart Cotterill

offer little job security to the practitioner, with payment often made in arrears via invoices based on, at best, flexible employment contracts ( Guest, 2004 ). Second, the employment of external practitioners by a client often bypasses normal human-resources processes, meaning there may be no clear job

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Donna L. Pastore and William G. Meacci

This study examined the process by which female coaches of NCAA Division I, II, and III institutions are recruited, selected, and retained. A total of 501 administrators and coaches of women's teams responded to a questionnaire consisting of 22 employment process statements that elicited (a) the extent to which each process was used, and (b) the importance attached to each process by the subjects. Principal component analyses of the two data sets yielded five factors: Organizational Policies, Candidate's Experience, Informal Recruiting, Formal Recruiting, and Candidate's Credentials. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Use of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed significant two-way interaction effects for gender, position, and division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that Candidate's Credentials was rated highest by all subgroups. A 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 (Gender × Position × Division × Importance of Factors) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant two-way interaction effect for division. Tukey's post hoc analyses indicated that respondents rated Candidate's Credentials and Organizational Policies highest.

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Janet B. Parks

This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.

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John Wilson

The restrictive covenants contained in the professional baseball player’s standard contract can be justified on grounds of being the most efficient solution to the problem of transaction costs in an industry where the difficulty of selecting and managing talent is acute. Contract law legitimates these restrictive covenants. Closer scrutiny of the history and sociopolitical context of the employment relationship in baseball underlines the role of power differentials in determining the parameters within which transacting for labor takes place. Not only the reserve clause but also the negative covenant in the player’s contract has been important in providing the conditions for the efficient trading of players.

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Urban Johnson and Mark Andersen

graduation, found it difficult to procure well-paid employment in ASP. Some years later, Williams ( 2003 ) found similar concerns and difficulties. In a more recent study, Fitzpatrick et al. ( 2016 ) reported the top five challenges that SEP master’s and doctoral students described about securing a desirable

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Gi-Yong Koo, Michael J. Diacin, Jam Khojasteh and Anthony W. Dixon

The internship could have a significant impact upon the student’s desire to enter the field after graduation. Despite a substantial amount of research that has been conducted with employees in many fields, relatively little research has been conducted with sport management interns. The purpose of this study, therefore, was twofold: (1) investigate the satisfaction of student-interns with characteristics of the internship experience and (2) investigate the effect of students’ satisfaction with their internship on their affective occupational commitment for and subsequent intentions to pursue employment in the sport management field. A total of 248 undergraduate students from two universities in the Southeastern United States completed a survey. Participants generally indicated satisfaction with opportunities to develop pertinent skills, engage in meaningful tasks, and build professional networks during the internship. Those who reported satisfaction with the internship were more likely to enter the field after graduation than those reporting dissatisfaction. Implications of these findings for site supervisors and sport management faculty were discussed.

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Laurene Rehman and Wendy Frisby

Women are responsible for large growth rates in self-employment in many industrialized countries, yet little is known about how they interpret or experience the work they do. In the literature, two competing images of self-employment for women have emerged. With the liberation perspective, self-employment is associated with self-fulfillment, autonomy and control, substantial financial rewards, and increased flexibility in balancing work and family demands. In contrast, the marginality perspective portrays self-employment as a low paying, unstable form of home-based work that combines incompatible work and domestic roles while marginalizing women's work in the economy. The purpose of this study was to examine the work experiences of women consultants in the fitness and sport industry based on the liberation and marginality perspectives of self-employment. Observations of home-based work sites, interviews, and validation focus groups were conducted with 13 women who were currently working or had previously worked as fitness and sport consultants. The results revealed that social context, stages of business development, the personal situations of the women, gender relations and body image issues, and the nature of the work itself influenced whether the women described their experiences as liberating or marginalizing.

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Sally Shaw and Larena Hoeber

Despite increasing numbers of women in senior sport management positions over the past 30 years, men still remain dominant in these roles, indicating a level of gender inequity within sport management. It is often assumed within sport organizations that women are well-matched for lower level management roles, whereas men are more suited to senior management roles. In order to understand perceptions held about women's and men's abilities related to sport management, it is necessary to understand and then analyze discourses, or dominant forms of knowledge, that influence various employment roles in sport organizations. After analyzing organizational documents and transcripts from interviews with 35 employees from three national sport organizations in England, it was found that senior management roles were heavily dominated by discourses of masculinity that are linked to men and are highly valued in sport organizations. In contrast, women and discourses of femininity are associated with employment roles that are undervalued within organizations. There is, however, the potential for resistance to these discourses on a number of levels and this is discussed with relation to one organization's commitment to change “taken for granted” assumptions about gendered employment roles in sport management.

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William P. Nowlan and Charles J. Redmond