Female sport fan research has been gaining momentum in recent years (e.g., Farrell, Fink, & Fields, 2011; Osborne & Coombs, 2013; Pope, 2011, 2013; Sveinson & Hoeber, 2015). Much of this research focuses on the marginalization that these sport fans experience (e.g., Crawford & Gosling, 2004; Jones, 2008; Sherlock & Elsden, 2000), with little attention given to experiences of empowerment. Therefore, this study sought to explore if female sport fans’ experiences involve marginalization, empowerment, or both and what contributes to these experiences. Multiple individual interviews were conducted with seven highly identified, displaced female sport fans. The data were analyzed through a three-step process involving open, axial, and selective coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The findings demonstrated that the participants experience marginalization based on assumptions that women are inauthentic sport fans. They also felt empowered when they were able to demonstrate legitimacy and authenticity in their fanship.
Katherine Sveinson and Larena Hoeber
Daniel Milton, Paul R. Appleton, Anna Bryant and Joan L. Duda
Despite the many benefits of physical education (PE), not all pupils have an empowering experience in PE. For example, 35% of Welsh children do not enjoy school sport and PE ( Sport Wales, 2015 ). Over 20 years of research confirms that a key determinant of the quality of a pupil’s experience in PE
Emma Seal and Emma Sherry
and program staff to make sense of the lived reality of doing sport-based development work. We aim to contribute to this growing body of literature by providing insights from the Girls’ Empowerment through Sport (GET) Cricket Program, an initiative specifically aimed at empowering young women and
Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen
-created motivational climate, which combines motivational perspectives on the athletic environment from both SDT and AGT. According to this conceptualization, an empowering coach is characterized by high degrees of autonomy-supportive, task-involving, and socially supportive behaviors, whereas a disempowering coach is
Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Barry Brummett
This study of spectator groups viewing televised professional football revealed that spectators, particularly women, acted upon sport texts to empower themselves. Radical empowerment for women occurred when female spectators subverted the premises of the televised football spectacle, using irony, sarcasm, and limited commitment to the game to refuse the preferred (patriarchal) readings of the text. Liberal empowerment occurred when women (and men) used mediation as a way of extending the self into the game. While men often availed themselves of mediation in this way, women did so less often, perhaps because liberal empowerment is ultimately disempowering to women.
Toni Liechty, Fleesha Willfong and Katherine Sveinson
The purpose of this study was to explore the embodied nature of empowerment among women who play tackle football. Data collection involved semistructured interviews with 15 female football players in Western Canada. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Three themes emerged from the data suggesting that playing football was empowering as women experienced: a) feelings of strength related to the physicality of the game; b) a sense of breaking boundaries as they participated despite challenges; and c) a sense of belonging to the team which led to positive outcomes such as increased confidence and selfacceptance. The findings of this study highlight the embodied nature of empowerment that comes through participation in sport and characteristics of contact team sport that can facilitate empowerment for women.
Leslie D. Haravon
The current popularity of aerobic dance exercise makes it an important site for the analysis of women and movement. Feminist researchers have critiqued aerobics as an activity which does more to maintain dominant ideologies of women’s powerlessness than it does to liberate women through movement and action (Kagan & Morse, 1988; MacNeil, 1988; Theberge, 1985, 1987) whereas, based upon psychological studies, a participation in aerobics has been shown to improve self-esteem (Labbe, Welsh, & Delaney, 1988; Plummer & Young, 1987; Skrinar, Bullen, Cheek, McArthur, & Vaughan, 1986). Other scholars point to the contradictions of empowerment and oppression that women must encounter when they participate in aerobic dance exercise (Haravon, 1992; Kenen, 1987; Markula, 1991).
In this paper I consider an alternative feminist reading of aerobic dance exercise, arguing that there are specific ways to make the mainstream aerobic workout a site for empowerment for women. Using the commentary of physical education students, I explain how an aerobic workout can empower its female participants. My definition of the term empowerment is borrowed from the work of Nancy Theberge (1985, 1987) in which she discusses women’s liberation and feminist notions of power as they might apply to sport. Theberge argues that “the potential of sport to act as an agent of women’s liberation stems mainly from the opportunity that women’s sporting activity affords them to experience their bodies as strong and powerful and free from male domination” (Theberge, 1985, p. 202). Theberge discusses both energy and creativity as more feminist ways of conceiving of power in sport (Theberge, 1987). I argue that creative and energetic power as well as the experience of a strong body free from male domination can be cultivated in the aerobic workout.
In the research presented here, I discuss common theoretical critiques of the practice of aerobics, review interactive studies of aerobics, and describe the method and practice of teaching both aerobics and Hatha Yoga. Quoting students in a yoga class, I note certain aspects of the class that might make it an empowering, consciousness-changing experience for these students. The yoga teaching methods discussed here are used as a guideline for the discussion of the empowering aerobic workout, which prescribes methods for teaching empowering aerobics using the recommendations, critiques and comments from the preceding sections. The purpose of this paper, rather than being a comparison of two representative samples of research subjects in yoga and aerobics classes, is to suggest that a juxtaposition of methods of teaching might reveal practical knowledge about empowering students in an aerobics class. Before discussing teaching and empowerment in particular, I offer the following theoretical perspectives on aerobics which are grounded in Cultural Studies, the assumptions of which are discussed below.
Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells and Mi Ryoung Chung
. Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses Development To guide the current study, we draw from servant leadership described by Greenleaf ( 1991 , p. 13) as “the servant-leader is servant first.” Servant leadership is characterized by the following behaviors: empowering and developing people, stewardship
Carrie W. LeCrom and Tiesha Martin
personal growth, focusing predominantly on empowerment and adaptability, with 91% of participants making discoveries in these areas. While this study was aimed specifically at cultural adaptability, the researchers found that participants demonstrated positive growth in terms of empowerment and personal
Alicia H. Malnati, Leslee A. Fisher, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Leslie K. Larsen, Matthew P. Bejar, Johannes J. Raabe and Jamie M. Fynes
Because alcohol abuse and sexual violence are particularly prevalent on college campuses (Coker et al., 2011), empowering female student-athletes is a vital pursuit for intercollegiate athletics (Gill, 2008; Cattaneo & Chapman, 2010). Using consensual qualitative research (Hill et al., 1997, 2005), we interviewed eight Division I female student-athletes who participated in an empowerment program about their experiences. Five domains were revealed: (a) perception of psychological empowerment, (b) perception of social empowerment, (c) perception of physical empowerment, (d) perception of biggest “takeaways,” and (e) experience of program. Findings illustrated the importance of empowering female student-athletes to believe in themselves, to act upon those beliefs, and to build community around those beliefs.