perform tasks successfully, experiencing positive affective or physiological states during or following task performance, or through verbal persuasion such as receiving positive social encouragement ( Bandura, 1997 ). While mastery experiences are considered the most powerful determinants of self
Kira L. Innes, Jeffrey D. Graham, and Steven R. Bray
Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte, and Nicholas L. Holt
, and it will be positively related with desirable parental sideline verbal behaviors (i.e., praise/encouragement) and negatively with undesirable parental sideline verbal behaviors (i.e., performance-contingent feedback, instruction, striking a balance, negative comments, and derogatory comments
Nicole E. Nicksic, Meliha Salahuddin, Nancy F. Butte, and Deanna M. Hoelscher
as well as into adulthood. 17 , 18 One form of parental social support, encouragement, can act as a motivator for children to participate in PA. In a qualitative study, parents who encouraged their children to initiate PA believed their children were more active. 19 Previous studies have also found
Keith A. King, Jennifer L. Tergerson, and Bradley R. Wilson
Social support can influence physical activity among some individuals. This study examined the effect that social support has on adolescents’ physical activity and their perceived barriers and benefits to exercising.
A survey was completed by adolescents (N = 535) at 2 single-sex (1 male, 1 female) high schools in Ohio.
Adolescents who received parental encouragement to exercise and who had an exercising friend engaged in significantly more days of physical activity in the past week than did their counterparts. Perceived benefits of physical activity differed significantly based on whether the respondent received parental encouragement and had a friend who exercised. Social support for physical activity significantly affected adolescents’ perceptions of and engagement in physical activity.
Parents should encourage their children to become physically active and partner with peers when exercising.
Klaus Libertus and Amy Needham
Four parent-guided training procedures aimed at facilitating independent reaching were compared in 36 three-month-old infants recruited for this study and 36 infants taken from previously published reports. Training procedures systematically varied whether parental encouragement to act on external objects was provided, and whether self-produced experiences of moving an object were present. Reaching behavior was assessed before and after training, and face preference was measured after training by recording infants’ eye gaze in a visual-preference task. Results showed that simultaneous experiences of parental encouragement and self-produced object motion encouraged successful reaching and face preference. Neither experience in isolation was effective, indicating that both external encouragement and self-produced action experiences are necessary to facilitate successful reaching. However, experiences with self-produced object motion increased infants’ face preference. This result provides evidence for a developmental link between self-produced motor experiences and the emergence of face preference in three-month-old infants.
Eleanor B. Tate, Anuja Shah, Malia Jones, Mary Ann Pentz, Yue Liao, and Genevieve Dunton
Research on adolescent physical activity is mixed regarding the role of parent activity. This study tested parent encouragement, direct modeling, and perceived influence as moderators of objectively-measured (accelerometer) parent and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) associations.
Parent-child dyads (n = 423; mean child age = 11.33 yrs.) wore accelerometers for 7 days; parents completed surveys. Hierarchical linear regression models tested moderation using a product of constituent terms interaction.
Parent-reported encouragement moderated the association between parent and child MVPA (β = –.15, P = .01, ΔR 2 = .02, P < .01). Among parents with lower MVPA, child MVPA was higher for children receiving high encouragement (mean = 3.06, SE = .17) vs. low (mean = 3.03, SE = .15, P = .02) and moderate encouragement (mean = 3.40, SE = .09) vs. low (P = .04).
Physical activity promotion programs may use parent encouragement as a tool to boost child activity, but must consider other child and parent characteristics that could attenuate effects.
Scott B. Martin, Peggy A. Richardson, Karen H. Weiller, and Allen W. Jackson
During the past decade females have had more opportunities to participate in sports at various levels than ever before. These opportunities and the recognition received due to their success may have changed peoples’ views regarding same-sex role models, perceived parental encouragement, and expectations of success. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore role models, perceived encouragement to participate in youth sport from parents, and sport expectations of adolescent athletes and their parents living in the United States of America. A questionnaire was administered to 426 adolescent athletes who competed in youth sport leagues and to one parent within each family unit (n=426). Chi square analysis indicated significant relationships between athletes’ gender and the gender of their role model and between parents’ gender and the gender of their role model (p = .0001). DM MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate difference for adolescent athletes and their parents on the questions concerning expectations for future athletic success. Post hoc analyses indicated that the athletes were more likely than their parents to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, or professional levels. In addition, boys were more likely than girls to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, and professional levels.
Howard L. Nixon II
This paper addresses how parents encourage or discourage sports involvement by their visually impaired offspring, the types of sports involvement these children pursue, and the effects of parental encouragement on sports involvement. It analyzes new evidence from a study of parental adjustment to a visually impaired child. The evidence was derived mainly from open-ended, in-depth interviews of parents of 18 partially sighted and totally blind children who had attended public school. There were 15 mothers and 9 fathers in the 16 families who were interviewed, and 2 of the families had 2 visually impaired children. Additional data were provided through interviews with 14 professionals and volunteers from various fields who had sports-related experiences or observations of visually impaired children and their families. Four major forms of parental encouragement and discouragement were identified: strong encouragers, weak encouragers, tolerators, and discouragers. The predominance of the latter three helped explain the dominant patterns of limited involvement in sport by visually impaired children. Implications of these findings for mainstreaming and appropriate integration also are considered.
Jordan Golding, Aaron Johnson, and Andrew T. Sensenig
Psychological momentum in sports is a series of high or low human performances that seem to defy statistical randomness, and instead is often attributed to a positive feedback system in the athlete’s physiology and psyche. Quantitative approaches have found some evidence of psychological momentum. We measured the throw speeds and accuracy of adult males throwing baseballs while subjecting them to verbal criticism (positive or negative). Our study of short-term momentum suggested evidence of psychological momentum only in top-performing university baseball players, and not in the lower-performing players or in nonathletes.
Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Wendy Y.J. Huang, and Robin R. Mellecker
Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children’s physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers’ PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong.
Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined.
The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child’s PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89).
We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.