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Ioanna Athanasiadou, Sven Christian Voss, Wesal El Saftawy, Hind Al-Jaber, Najib Dbes, Sameera Al-Yazedi, Waseem Samsam, Vidya Mohamed-Ali, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Georgia Valsami and Costas Georgakopoulos

not prohibited as per WADA’s current regulations ( WADA Prohibited List, 2018 ). The consumption of high volumes of water or sports drinks leads to an increased urinary flow rate (UFR) with increased urinary production. As LH is an endogenous substance, its excretion pattern in urine follows the

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Kamila Grandolfi, Vandre Sosciarelli and Marcos Polito

the activation of pain and nonpain control systems, leading to the release of endogenous substances crucially involved in placebo-induced benefits. 10 In this context, psychophysiological variables (such as motivation, expectancy, and conditioning) can interact with physiological variables (such as