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Seiji Maeda, Asako Zempo-Miyaki, Hiroyuki Sasai, Takehiko Tsujimoto, Rina So and Kiyoji Tanaka

Obesity and increased arterial stiffness are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is increased in obese individuals than in age-matched nonobese individuals. We demonstrated that dietary modification and exercise training are effective in reducing arterial stiffness in obese persons. However, the differences in the effect on arterial stiffness between dietary modification and exercise training are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of dietary modification and aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in overweight and obese persons. Forty-five overweight and obese men (48 ± 1 year) completed either a dietary modification (well-balanced nutrient, 1680 kcal/day) or an exercise-training program (walking, 40–60 min/day, 3 days/week) for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, all participants underwent anthropometric measurements. Arterial stiffness was measured based on carotid arterial compliance, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and endothelial function was determined by circulating level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide metabolite (nitrites/nitrate as metabolite: NOx). Body mass and waist circumference significantly decreased after both intervention programs. Weight loss was greater after dietary modification than after exercise training (-10.1 ± 0.6 kg vs. -3.6 ± 0.5 kg, p < .01). Although arterial stiffness and the plasma levels of ET-1 and NOx were improved after dietary modification or exercise training, there were no differences in those improvements between the 2 types of interventions. Exercise training improves arterial function in obese men without as much weight loss as after dietary modification.

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

reader ( 28 ). In addition, levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and CRP in blood samples were measured by commercially available enzyme immunoassay techniques (ET-1 and CRP enzyme immunoassay kits; Cayman Chemical). The detection range for ET-1 using this assay was from ≥1.5 μmol/mL. Plasma insulin

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Bianca Fernandes, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Fernanda Zane Arthuso, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Gabriel Felipe Moretto, Luis Felipe Itikawa Imaizumi, Awassi Yophiwa Ngomane, Guilherme Veiga Guimarães and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

vasoconstrictors (eg, nitric oxide, endothelin-1) production and bioavailability may be preserved in individuals with PD and then may be associated with the positive effect of HIIT on endothelial reactivity. The reason for the superior effect of HIIT on endothelial reactivity and other markers of endothelial

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

, Zheng Z , Michaels AD . Effect of external counterpulsation on plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 levels . Am J Cardiol . 2006 ; 98 ( 1 ): 28 – 30 . PubMed ID: 16784915 doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.01.053 16784915 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.01.053 12. Allen D , Lamb G , Westerblad H

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen

sitting. Increased sympathetic activity, potentially associated with increases in mean arterial pressure reported during prolonged sitting, 49 , 51 or release of negative vasoactive substances, such as endothelin 1 52 , 53 and angiotensin II, 54 – 57 are possible factors that may alter vascular