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Running at Increasing Intensities in the Heat Induces Transient Gut Perturbations

Alice M. Wallett, Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Philo U. Saunders, Marijke Welvaert, Julien D. Périard, Andrew J. McKune, and David B. Pyne

proteins and increase the risk of exercise-induced endotoxemia. 5 Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are systemic endotoxins that increase in concentration following a rise in gut permeability during exercise in the heat. 9 Other indirect biomarkers of GI permeability and damage include LPS binding protein (LBP

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Repeated-Sprint Exercise in the Heat Increases Indirect Markers of Gastrointestinal Damage in Well-Trained Team-Sport Athletes

Alice Wallett, Andrew McKune, David Pyne, David Bishop, Olivier Girard, Philo Saunders, and Julien Périard

circulation ( Lim et al., 2009 ; Yeh et al., 2013 ). As a result of increased LPS translocation, athletes exercising in the heat may experience a heightened risk of exercise-induced endotoxemia ( Yeh et al., 2013 ; Zuhl et al., 2014 ). Team-sport athletes (e.g., rugby, football) repeatedly produce maximal

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Effect of Exercising in the Heat on Intestinal Fatty Acid-Binding Protein, Endotoxins, and Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein Markers in Trained Athletic Populations: A Systematic Literature Review

Alice Wallett, Julien D. Périard, Philo Saunders, and Andrew McKune

, resulting in increased translocation of luminal pathogens, such as gram-negative bacteria (i.e., lipopolysaccharides [LPS], a major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria) into circulation. This may increase the risk of endotoxemia that is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, a

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New Perspectives on Risk Factors for Exertional Heat Stroke

Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein, and Douglas J. Casa

other harmful materials to pass through the GI tract and into systemic circulation ( Lambert, Broussard, Mason, Mauermann, & Gisolfi, 2001 ). LPSs overwhelm the liver, and the excess leaches into systemic circulation (endotoxemia), creating a systemic inflammatory response ( Lim & Mackinnon, 2006

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Anthocyanin-Rich Blackcurrant Extract Preserves Gastrointestinal Barrier Permeability and Reduces Enterocyte Damage but Has No Effect on Microbial Translocation and Inflammation After Exertional Heat Stress

Ben J. Lee, Tessa R. Flood, Ania M. Hiles, Ella F. Walker, Lucy E.V. Wheeler, Kimberly M. Ashdown, Mark E.T. Willems, Rianne Costello, Luke D. Greisler, Phebe A. Romano, Garrett W. Hill, and Matthew R. Kuennen

colitis—An open pilot study . Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, 7 ( 4 ), 271 – 279 . 10.1016/j.crohns.2012.07.010 Bouchama , A. , Parhar , R.S. , El-Yazigi , A. , Sheth , K. , & Al-Sedairy , S. ( 1991 ). Endotoxemia and release of tumor necrosis

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Amino Acid-Based Beverage Interventions Ameliorate Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Response to Exertional-Heat Stress: The Heat Exertion Amino Acid Technology (HEAAT) Study

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Kayla Henningsen, Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rebekah Alcock, Alice Mika, Christopher Rauch, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Phil Blazy, and Robert Kenefick

. Review and final preparation of the manuscript: All authors. References Bosenberg , A.T. , Brock-Utne , J.G. , Gaffin , S.L. , Wells , M.T. , & Blake , G.T. ( 1988 ). Strenuous exercise causes systemic endotoxemia . Journal of Applied Physiology, 65 ( 1 ), 106 – 108 .

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Heat Stress Training Camps for Endurance Sport: A Descriptive Case Study of Successful Monitoring in 2 Ironman Triathletes

Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens, and Daniel J. Plews

-heat stress for inducing desirable metabolic adaptations to training have not been fully elucidated in humans. Prolonged exercise under heat stress can also induce additional physiological stress that may have implications for athlete well-being, such as endotoxemia, 2 suppressed appetite, 3 and elevated

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Assessment of Exercise-Associated Gastrointestinal Perturbations in Research and Practical Settings: Methodological Concerns and Recommendations for Best Practice

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Pascale Young, Samantha K. Gill, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Stephanie Gaskell, Isabella Russo, and Louise M. Burke

endotoxemia. TR: Active healthy population resting values ( n  = 39, CV = 7.2%): 119 (101–137) pg/ml (HIT302, Hycult Biotech). b Clinical definition of endotoxemia: Δ >5 pg/ml with depressed EndoCAb such as IgM ( Barclay, 1995 ; Bosenberg et al., 1988 ; Brock-Utne et al., 1988 ; Camus et al., 1997 , 1998

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Applying a Low-FODMAP Dietary Intervention to a Female Ultraendurance Runner With Irritable Bowel Syndrome During a Multistage Ultramarathon

Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

.J. , Valentino , T. , Hew-Butler , T. , Hecht , F.M. , & Hoffman , M.D. ( 2016 ). Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a 161-km ultramarathon . Journal of Sports Science, 34 , 1662 – 1668 . doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1130238 10.1080/02640414.2015.1130238 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K

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Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Integrity in Runners Undertaking High-Intensity Exercise in the Heat

Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Maree Gleeson, Alice Wallett, Warren A. McDonald, Kate L. Pumpa, and David B. Pyne

negatively affect exercise, training, and competitive performance. Exercising in the heat is a common practice for endurance athletes and can compromise epithelial integrity, consequently, increasing intestinal permeability and endotoxemia ( Costa et al., 2017 ). Most GI disturbances occur on race day