among endurance athletes and in team sports ( Hoogenboom et al., 2009 ; Rossi et al., 2017 ; Valliant et al., 2012 ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrition knowledge of Finnish endurance athletes and their coaches. Our study is the first of its kind in Finland. The evaluation was carried
Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm
Alan J. McCubbin, Gregory R. Cox and Ricardo J.S. Costa
quantifiable sodium replacement. Endurance athletes commonly believe sodium intake improves performance and prevents health consequences of endurance exercise, including exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) ( Winger et al., 2011 , 2013 ). Mechanisms cited include
Jan G. Bourgois, Gil Bourgois and Jan Boone
, polarized model; PYR, pyramidal model; THR, threshold model; TID, training-intensity distribution; VT 1 , first ventilatory threshold; VT 2 , second ventilatory threshold. Historical Perspective Since 1990, TID of elite endurance athletes has been reported based on narrative literature and empirical
Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin
A balanced diet with an appropriate energy intake supports optimal body function ( Thomas et al., 2016 ) and is, together with regular physical activity, the cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle. However, exercising women and female athletes focusing on leanness, such as endurance athletes, are
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter and Yann Le Meur
they are not representative of the ecological training program of endurance athletes. 5 More specifically, low-intensity HA protocols contrast with the combination of low- and high-intensity training and ensuing taper period often used prior to competition. Therefore, HA protocols fitting the dual
Daniel A. Boullosa, José L. Tuimil, Luis M. Alegre, Eliseo Iglesias and Fernando Lusquiños
Countermovement jump (CMJ) and maximum running speed over a distance of 20 m were evaluated for examination of the concurrent fatigue and post-activation potentiation (PAP) in endurance athletes after an incremental feld running test.
Twenty-two endurance athletes performed two attempts of CMJ on a force plate and maximum running speed test before and following the Université de Montréal Track Test (UMTT).
The results showed an improvement in CMJ height (3.6%) after UMTT that correlated with the increment in peak power (3.4%), with a concurrent peak force loss (–10.8%) that correlated with peak power enhancement. The athletes maintained their 20 m sprint performance after exhaustion. Cluster analysis reinforced the association between CMJ and peak power increments in responders with a reported correlation between peak power and sprint performance increments (r = .623; P = .041); nonresponders showed an impairment of peak force, vertical stiffness, and a higher vertical displacement of the center of mass during the countermovement that correlated with lactate concentration (r = –0.717; P = .02).
It can be suggested that PAP could counteract the peak force loss after exhaustion, allowing the enhancement of CMJ performance and the maintenance of sprint ability in endurance athletes after the UMTT. From these results, the evaluation of CMJ after incremental running tests for the assessment of muscular adaptations in endurance athletes can be recommended.
David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson
(randomized, crossover) on oxinflammation markers after cycling exercise in 22 endurance athletes. We hypothesized that 2-week mixed flavonoid versus placebo supplementation would attenuate postexercise increases in the oxinflammation status. The supplementation duration (2 weeks) was chosen because of the
Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez
The current daily protein recommendation for regular endurance exercisers is between 1.2 and 1.6 ( Thomas et al., 2016 ) or up to 1.8 g·kg −1 ·body mass for trained endurance athletes ( Jager et al., 2017 ). Accordingly, Kato et al. ( 2016 ), using the amino acid oxidation method, suggested an
Øystein Sylta, Espen Tønnessen and Stephen Seiler
The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of self-reported (SR) training duration and intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes.
Twenty-four elite cross-country skiers (25 ± 4 y, 67.9 ± 9.88 kg, 75.9 ± 6.50 mL · min−1 · kg−1) SR all training sessions during an ~14-d altitude-training camp. Heart rate (HR) and some blood lactate measurements were collected during 466 training sessions. SR training was compared with recorded training duration from HR monitors, and SR intensity distribution was compared with expert analysis (EA) of all session data.
SR training was nearly perfectly correlated with recorded training duration (r = .99), but SR training was 1.7% lower than recorded training duration (P < .001). SR training duration was also nearly perfectly correlated (r = .95) with recorded training duration >55% HRmax, but SR training was 11.4% higher than recorded training duration >55% HRmax (P < .001) due to SR inclusion of time <55% HRmax. No significant differences were observed in intensity distribution in zones 1–2 between SR and EA comparisons, but small discrepancies were found in zones 3–4 (P < .001).
This study provides evidence that elite endurance athletes report their training data accurately, although some small differences were observed due to lack of a SR “gold standard.” Daily SR training is a valid method of quantifying training duration and intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes. However, additional common reporting guidelines would further enhance accuracy.
Marie Dunford and Charlotte Saunders
The determination of blood glucose response to various carbohydrate foods may help athletes in their choice of preexercise feedings. This case study documented the postprandial glycemic responses of three male endurance athletes at rest after ingestion of 50-gram portions of three carbohydrate foods: graham crackers, orange juice, and oatmeal. Plasma glucose response differed in each subject for each test food. Two of the three subjects exhibited similar glycemic responses, but not to the same test food. Future studies will clarify the relationship between carbohydrate ingestion and postprandial glucose response.