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Stephen R. Bird, Simon C. Theakston, Andrew Owen and Alan M. Nevill

This study assessed physiological and cardiac factors associated with 10-km running performance in a group of highly trained endurance runners age 21–63 years. Participants (N = 37) underwent a resting echocardiograph and incremental treadmill running test. They also provided information on their recent 10-km races. Data were analyzed using “best subsets” multiple regression. Declines with age were found for 10-km running speed (0.26 m · s−1 · decade−1), maximum heart rate (4 beats/decade), VO2peak (6 ml · kg−1 · min−1 · decade−1), velocity at lactate threshold (1 m · s−1 · decade−1), and VO2 at lactate threshold (4 ml · kg−1 · min−1 · decade−1). The percentage of VO2peak at which lactate threshold occurred increased with age by 1.5% per decade. The rate of change of displacement of the atrioventricular plane at the left free wall and septum both declined by 1 cm · s−1 · decade−1. The best single predictor of 10-km running speed was velocity at lactate threshold.

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Daniel Boullosa, César C.C. Abad, Valter P. Reis, Victor Fernandes, Claudio Castilho, Luis Candido, Alessandro M. Zagatto, Lucas A. Pereira and Irineu Loturco

ballistic exercises in the warm-up. The purpose of this study was 2-fold. First, we aimed to evaluate the effect of DJs on performance time and pacing in a field test (ie, 1000 m) commonly used to evaluate endurance runners. Second, we aimed to verify if differences arise in running and jumping performances

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Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

The importance of resistance training (RT) for endurance runners has been extensively demonstrated in the last decade. 1 This has 2 main goals: maximizing athletic performance (eg, running economy [RE] or velocity at VO 2 max [vVO 2 max]) and minimizing the risk of injury. 2 Specifically, RT

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Andy Galbraith, James Hopker, Marco Cardinale, Brian Cunniffe and Louis Passfield

Purpose:

To examine the training and concomitant changes in laboratory- and field-test performance of highly trained endurance runners.

Methods:

Fourteen highly trained male endurance runners (mean ± SD maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 69.8 ± 6.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1) completed this 1-y training study commencing in April. During the study the runners undertook 5 laboratory tests of VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy and 9 field tests to determine critical speed (CS) and the modeled maximum distance performed above CS (D′). The data for different periods of the year were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The influence of training on laboratory- and field-test changes was analyzed by multiple regression.

Results:

Total training distance varied during the year and was lower in May–July (333 ± 206 km, P = .01) and July–August (339 ± 206 km, P = .02) than in the subsequent January–February period (474 ± 188 km). VO2max increased from the April baseline (4.7 ± 0.4 L/min) in October and January periods (5.0 ± 0.4 L/min, P ≤ .01). Other laboratory measures did not change. Runners’ CS was lowest in August (4.90 ± 0.32 m/s) and highest in February (4.99 ± 0.30 m/s, P = .02). Total training distance and the percentage of training time spent above LT velocity explained 33% of the variation in CS.

Conclusion:

Highly trained endurance runners achieve small but significant changes in VO2max and CS in a year. Increases in training distance and time above LT velocity were related to increases in CS.

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

investigation was to assess the relationship between typical training loads and CAR in endurance runners. The positive relationship between CAR and objective training load (TRIMP) suggests that greater training loads are associated with an augmented CAR. If true, this may be a result of a transient disruption

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Noel Pollock, Claire Grogan, Mark Perry, Charles Pedlar, Karl Cooke, Dylan Morrissey and Lygeri Dimitriou

Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no significant relationships between BMD and the possible associations. Menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and low BMD were coexistent in 15.9% of athletes. Longitudinal analysis identified a positive association between the BMD reduction at the lumbar spine and training volume (p = .026). This study confirms the presence of aspects of the female athlete triad in elite female endurance athletes and notes a substantial prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis. Normal menstrual status was not significantly associated with normal BMD, and it is the authors’ practice that all elite female endurance athletes undergo dual-X-ray absorptiometry screening. The association between increased training volume, trend for menstrual dysfunction, and increased loss of lumbar BMD may support the concept that negative energy balance contributes to bone loss in athletes.

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Vincenzo Manzi, Antonio Bovenzi, Carlo Castagna, Paola Sinibaldi Salimei, Maurizio Volterrani and Ferdinando Iellamo

Purpose:

To assess the distribution of exercise intensity in long-distance recreational athletes (LDRs) preparing for a marathon and to test the hypothesis that individual perception of effort could provide training responses similar to those provided by standardized training methodologies.

Methods:

Seven LDRs (age 36.5 ± 3.8 y) were followed during a 5-mo training period culminating with a city marathon. Heart rate at 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/L and maximal heart rate were used to establish 3 intensity training zones. Internal training load (TL) was assessed by training zones and TRIMPi methods. These were compared with the session-rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) method.

Results:

Total time spent in zone 1 was higher than in zones 2 and 3 (76.3% ± 6.4%, 17.3% ± 5.8%, and 6.3% ± 0.9%, respectively; P = .000 for both, ES = 0.98, ES = 0.99). TL quantified by session-RPE provided the same result. The comparison between session-RPE and training-zones-based methods showed no significant difference at the lowest intensity (P = .07, ES = 0.25). A significant correlation was observed between TL RPE and TL TRIMPi at both individual and group levels (r = .79, P < .001). There was a significant correlation between total time spent in zone 1 and the improvement at the running speed of 2 mmol/L (r = .88, P < .001). A negative correlation was found between running speed at 2 mmol/L and the time needed to complete the marathon (r = –.83, P < .001).

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that in recreational LDRs most of the training time is spent at low intensity and that this is associated with improved performances. Session-RPE is an easy-to-use training method that provides responses similar to those obtained with standardized training methodologies.

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Marcus P. Tartaruga, Carlos B. Mota, Leonardo A. Peyré-Tartaruga and Jeanick Brisswalter

Purpose:

To identify the effect of allometric scaling on the relationship between running efficiency (R Eff) and middle-distancerunning performance according to performance level.

Methods:

Thirteen male recreational middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 33.3 ± 8.4 y, body mass 76.4 ± 8.6 kg, maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 52.8 ± 4.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1; G1) and 13 male high-level middle-distance runners (age 25.5 ± 4.2 y, body mass 62.8 ± 2.7 kg, VO2max 70.4 ± 1.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1; G2) performed a continuous incremental test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max and a 6-min submaximal running test at 70% of VO2max to assess R Eff.

Results:

Significant correlation between R Eff and performance were found for both groups; however, the strongest correlations were observed in recreational runners, especially when using the allometric exponent (respectively for G1, nonallometric vs allometric scaling: r = .80 vs r = .86; and for G2, nonallometric vs allometric scaling: r = .55 vs r = .50).

Conclusion:

These results indicate that an allometric normalization may improve endurance-performance prediction from R Eff values in recreational, but not in elite, runners.

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Laura A. Garvican, Louisa Lobigs, Richard Telford, Kieran Fallon and Christopher J. Gore

Haemoglobin mass in a female endurance athlete was measured via carbon monoxide rebreathing upon diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia (haemoglobin concentration = 8.8 g/dL, ferritin = 9.9 ng/mL) and regularly during treatment thereafter. Haemoglobin mass increased by 49% in the 2 wk following an intramuscular iron injection and continued to increase with oral iron supplementation for 15 wk. The presented case illustrates that haemoglobin mass is readily responsive to iron supplementation in a severely iron-defcient anemic athlete and that changes can be tracked efficiently using the CO-rebreathing method.

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Martin D. Hoffman and Thomas M. Myers

Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2–10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer’s). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH.