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Laura Hottenrott, Sascha Ketelhut, Christoph Schneider, Thimo Wiewelhove, and Alexander Ferrauti

Postexercise recovery is a fundamental component of high-intensity and endurance exercise and is crucial for continuous performance enhancement. An acute bout of endurance exercise modulates different functional systems and leads to an increase in heart rate, lactate, body temperature, blood flow

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Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Matthieu Delcourt, Ed Maunder, and Daniel J. Plews

Ultra-endurance competitions, defined as endurance events lasting longer than 6 hours, 1 challenge human endurance in ways that are difficult to replicate in a laboratory setting. 2 Popular ultra-endurance cycling events include 24-hour solo cycling 3 and the Race Across America (RAAM). 4 The

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Saichon Kloyiam, Sarah Breen, Philip Jakeman, Joe Conway, and Yeshayahu Hutzler

The purpose of this study was to describe running economy, soccer specific endurance, and selected kinematic running criteria in soccer players with cerebral palsy (SPCP) and to compare them with values of position-matched players without CP. Fourteen international, male soccer players with cerebral palsy completed the “Yo-Yo” intermittent recovery run level 1 (IRL-1) test to assess soccer-specific endurance and a submaximal running test on a treadmill to determine running economy. The mean IRL-1 distance covered by the SPCP of the Irish CP team was found to be 43–50% below the mean distance attained by position-matched soccer players without disability, while running economy was found to be within the range of that reported for able-bodied athletes. No relationship could be found between the level of CP-ISRA classification and soccer-specific endurance or running economy in this group of elite level SPCP. Though small in number, these data support a further examination of the relationship between CP classification and sport-specific performance.

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Leila Ghamkhar, Somayeh Amiri Arimi, and Amir H. Kahlaee

muscular dysfunction (in terms of atrophy 4 , 5 and reduced endurance 6 , 7 ) have drawn considerable attention in cases of chronic nonspecific NP. Several investigations have found proprioception to be impaired in chronic nonspecific NP patients and thus concluded that altered proprioception may be a

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Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lidia B. Alejo, Eduardo Talavera, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Alejandro Lucia, and David Barranco-Gil

Resistance training (RT) has emerged as a cornerstone of endurance training in athletes, not only because of its benefits in injury prevention 1 but also because of its positive effects on endurance performance. 2 – 4 There is strong evidence that RT can improve exercise economy—to maximize

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Eduardo Talavera, Lidia B. Alejo, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Cecilia Rincón-Castanedo, Iván Rodríguez-Hernández, Alejandro Lucia, and David Barranco-Gil

modalities have been developed to maximize gains in muscle power, one being the traditional resistance training (RT) model. 2 In fact, growing evidence supports the benefits of RT for performance not only in “power” events but also in endurance sports, as it improves peak muscle force/power, as well as

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston, and Ole J. Kemi

. Accordingly, changes to those affect maximal climbing performance. Previous studies have identified many of those characteristics, such as upper-body and shoulder strength 6 – 8 including explosive power, 5 , 6 , 9 forearm grip and finger strength, 5 , 10 – 13 upper-body endurance capacity 10 , 14 and

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

to cross the Adriatic Sea from Punta Palascìa (Italy) to Punta Linguetta (Albania), in 23 hours and 44 minutes. 3 This is an example of ultra endurance swimming performed in solo conditions. Over the last decade the popularity of ultraendurance events has increased, because of the spirit and

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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Stephen Crowcroft, Chris R. Abbiss, Lee K. Wallace, and Aaron J. Coutts

Challenging environmental conditions such as heat or hypoxia increase physiological demand during endurance exercise and may impair physical performance. 1 , 2 Repeated exposure to heat or hypoxia elicits physiological responses to reduce strain during exercise and minimizes the negative impact on

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Alice M. Wallett, Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Philo U. Saunders, Marijke Welvaert, Julien D. Périard, Andrew J. McKune, and David B. Pyne

exercise ≤60 minutes has recently been shown to increase permeability. 3 , 4 During continuous, moderate- to high-intensity endurance-based exercise, GI ischemia may occur in response to the redistribution of splanchnic blood flow to maintain adequate delivery of oxygen to the working muscles. 1 A