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Saichon Kloyiam, Sarah Breen, Philip Jakeman, Joe Conway and Yeshayahu Hutzler

The purpose of this study was to describe running economy, soccer specific endurance, and selected kinematic running criteria in soccer players with cerebral palsy (SPCP) and to compare them with values of position-matched players without CP. Fourteen international, male soccer players with cerebral palsy completed the “Yo-Yo” intermittent recovery run level 1 (IRL-1) test to assess soccer-specific endurance and a submaximal running test on a treadmill to determine running economy. The mean IRL-1 distance covered by the SPCP of the Irish CP team was found to be 43–50% below the mean distance attained by position-matched soccer players without disability, while running economy was found to be within the range of that reported for able-bodied athletes. No relationship could be found between the level of CP-ISRA classification and soccer-specific endurance or running economy in this group of elite level SPCP. Though small in number, these data support a further examination of the relationship between CP classification and sport-specific performance.

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Leila Ghamkhar, Somayeh Amiri Arimi and Amir H. Kahlaee

muscular dysfunction (in terms of atrophy 4 , 5 and reduced endurance 6 , 7 ) have drawn considerable attention in cases of chronic nonspecific NP. Several investigations have found proprioception to be impaired in chronic nonspecific NP patients and thus concluded that altered proprioception may be a

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston and Ole J. Kemi

. Accordingly, changes to those affect maximal climbing performance. Previous studies have identified many of those characteristics, such as upper-body and shoulder strength 6 – 8 including explosive power, 5 , 6 , 9 forearm grip and finger strength, 5 , 10 – 13 upper-body endurance capacity 10 , 14 and

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

to cross the Adriatic Sea from Punta Palascìa (Italy) to Punta Linguetta (Albania), in 23 hours and 44 minutes. 3 This is an example of ultra endurance swimming performed in solo conditions. Over the last decade the popularity of ultraendurance events has increased, because of the spirit and

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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Stephen Crowcroft, Chris R. Abbiss, Lee K. Wallace and Aaron J. Coutts

Challenging environmental conditions such as heat or hypoxia increase physiological demand during endurance exercise and may impair physical performance. 1 , 2 Repeated exposure to heat or hypoxia elicits physiological responses to reduce strain during exercise and minimizes the negative impact on

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

The interaction of energetic substrates during exercise has been investigated for over 100 years ( Hawley et al., 2015 ). Endurance performance up to ∼3–4 hr appears to be carbohydrate dependent (skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen, blood glucose, lactate and exogenous sources; Hawley & Leckey

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Women of Endurance

Pedestriennes, Marathoners, Ultramarathoners, and Others: Two Centuries of Women’s Endurance (1816-1996)

Dahn Shaulis

For two centuries, women and girls have performed extraordinary feats of endurance with limited notice. Women’s individual achievements have included walking for a month with less than 10 or 15 minutes continuous rest, walking and running more than 400 miles in six consecutive days, and defeating all men contestants in endurance competitions. Ideally, these achievements should have shattered the myths of female frailty and allowed more women to participate in and manage endurance events. However, women’s endurance has often been reduced, marginalized or exploited. Using post-modern historical analysis of 1000 printed sources, the author focuses on 19th century women’s professional endurance efforts, and also shows that marginalization and exploitation of women’s endurance continues into the 21st century.

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Nicholas J. Hanson, Sarah C. Martinez, Erik N. Byl, Rachel M. Maceri and Michael G. Miller

circulating dopamine (DA) in the brain, which has been shown to increase arousal and motivation, 2 and can improve endurance performance in athletes. 3 The use of caffeine is highly prevalent not only in the general population but also with athletes. It is a drug that is not currently banned by any athletic

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Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm

among endurance athletes and in team sports ( Hoogenboom et al., 2009 ; Rossi et al., 2017 ; Valliant et al., 2012 ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrition knowledge of Finnish endurance athletes and their coaches. Our study is the first of its kind in Finland. The evaluation was carried

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

Endurance performance in hot conditions is impaired due to an increased rate of fatigue. 1 A well-known factor that increases the rate of fatigue in the heat is an increase in core temperature, 1 as this results in competition of blood flow between skeletal muscle and the skin, 2 , 3 reduced