among endurance athletes and in team sports ( Hoogenboom et al., 2009 ; Rossi et al., 2017 ; Valliant et al., 2012 ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrition knowledge of Finnish endurance athletes and their coaches. Our study is the first of its kind in Finland. The evaluation was carried
Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta, and Mikael Fogelholm
Alan J. McCubbin, Gregory R. Cox, and Ricardo J.S. Costa
quantifiable sodium replacement. Endurance athletes commonly believe sodium intake improves performance and prevents health consequences of endurance exercise, including exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) ( Winger et al., 2011 , 2013 ). Mechanisms cited include
Jan G. Bourgois, Gil Bourgois, and Jan Boone
, polarized model; PYR, pyramidal model; THR, threshold model; TID, training-intensity distribution; VT 1 , first ventilatory threshold; VT 2 , second ventilatory threshold. Historical Perspective Since 1990, TID of elite endurance athletes has been reported based on narrative literature and empirical
Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Andrew E. Kilding, and Daniel J. Plews
), and a recent survey found that 48% of elite endurance athletes reported performing at least some training sessions in an overnight-fasted state ( Heikura et al., 2018 ). Athletes may choose to perform training sessions in the overnight-fasted state for a variety of reasons, including convenience, gut
Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Maree Gleeson, Alice Wallett, Warren A. McDonald, Kate L. Pumpa, and David B. Pyne
negatively affect exercise, training, and competitive performance. Exercising in the heat is a common practice for endurance athletes and can compromise epithelial integrity, consequently, increasing intestinal permeability and endotoxemia ( Costa et al., 2017 ). Most GI disturbances occur on race day
Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta, and Anna Melin
A balanced diet with an appropriate energy intake supports optimal body function ( Thomas et al., 2016 ) and is, together with regular physical activity, the cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle. However, exercising women and female athletes focusing on leanness, such as endurance athletes, are
Annemiek J. Roete, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser, Ruby T.A. Otter, Inge K. Stoter, and Robert P. Lamberts
-term adverse effects on performance, it is extremely important to be able to recognize symptoms of functional overreaching from which athletes can recover relatively quickly and prevent the development of a nonfunctional overreaching status. Although this is important for all athletes, endurance athletes with
Daniel A. Boullosa, José L. Tuimil, Luis M. Alegre, Eliseo Iglesias, and Fernando Lusquiños
Countermovement jump (CMJ) and maximum running speed over a distance of 20 m were evaluated for examination of the concurrent fatigue and post-activation potentiation (PAP) in endurance athletes after an incremental feld running test.
Twenty-two endurance athletes performed two attempts of CMJ on a force plate and maximum running speed test before and following the Université de Montréal Track Test (UMTT).
The results showed an improvement in CMJ height (3.6%) after UMTT that correlated with the increment in peak power (3.4%), with a concurrent peak force loss (–10.8%) that correlated with peak power enhancement. The athletes maintained their 20 m sprint performance after exhaustion. Cluster analysis reinforced the association between CMJ and peak power increments in responders with a reported correlation between peak power and sprint performance increments (r = .623; P = .041); nonresponders showed an impairment of peak force, vertical stiffness, and a higher vertical displacement of the center of mass during the countermovement that correlated with lactate concentration (r = –0.717; P = .02).
It can be suggested that PAP could counteract the peak force loss after exhaustion, allowing the enhancement of CMJ performance and the maintenance of sprint ability in endurance athletes after the UMTT. From these results, the evaluation of CMJ after incremental running tests for the assessment of muscular adaptations in endurance athletes can be recommended.
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, and Yann Le Meur
they are not representative of the ecological training program of endurance athletes. 5 More specifically, low-intensity HA protocols contrast with the combination of low- and high-intensity training and ensuing taper period often used prior to competition. Therefore, HA protocols fitting the dual
Thomas Losnegard, Sondre Skarli, Joar Hansen, Stian Roterud, Ida S. Svendsen, Bent R. Rønnestad, and Gøran Paulsen
approaches to manage intensity are used by endurance athletes, categorized as objective internal, subjective internal, or external markers. The latter is typically speed (in meters per second) and power output (in watts). Objective internal markers are first and foremost oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR