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Tim Woodman and Charlotte Welch

forms of exercise to regulate their emotions, specifically their anxiety. In short, for individuals high in alexithymia, extreme forms of exercise may be a primary emotion regulation strategy. In this study, we aim to extend this area of research into the world of extreme endurance running. Extreme

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Aurélien Patoz, Thibault Lussiana, Bastiaan Breine, Cyrille Gindre, and Kim Hébert-Losier

energetically equivalent at endurance running speeds. 3 Given that the V®score and DF are continuous variables, the global running pattern of individuals could be defined along a continuum rather than categorized into 2 or more groups. However, the relation between RE and global running patterns along a

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Enrique Colino, Jorge Garcia-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia, and Jose Luis Felipe

Surface properties can influence endurance running performance. 1 – 3 Indeed, athletes adjust their leg stiffness when running on surfaces of differing mechanical properties, 4 , 5 resulting in subtle changes in lower-limb kinematic patterns, landing style, stride length, ground reaction force

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Costas Chryssanthopoulos, Clyde Williams, Andrea Nowitz, Christina Kotsiopoulou, and Veronica Vleck

This study examined the effects of a pre-exercise meal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance running capacity. Ten men performed 3 treadmill runs at 70% V̇O2max to exhaustion after consuming (a) a carbohydrate meal 3 h before exercise and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise (M+C); or (b) the carbohydrate meal 3 h before exercise and water during exercise (M+W): or (c) a liquid placebo 3 h before exercise and water during exercise (P+W). Exercise time was longer in M+C (125.1 ±5.3 min; mean±SE) and M+W (111.9 ± 5.6 min) compared with P+W (102.9 ± 7.9 min;p< .01 and p < .05, respectively), and longer in M+C compared with M+W (p < .05). Serum insulin concentration at the start of exercise and carbohydrate oxidation rates during the first hour of exercise were higher, whereas plasma FFA concentrations throughout exercise were lower in M+W and M+C than in P+W (p < .01). A carbohydrate meal before exercise at 70% V̇O2max improved endurance running capacity; however, me combination of the meal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise further improved endurance running capacity.

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Ben J. Dascombe, Trent K. Hoare, Joshua A. Sear, Peter R. Reaburn, and Aaron T. Scanlan

Purpose:

To examine whether wearing various size lower-body compression garments improves physiological and performance parameters related to endurance running in well-trained athletes.

Methods:

Eleven well-trained middle-distance runners and triathletes (age: 28.4 ± 10.0 y; height: 177.3 ± 4.7 cm; body mass: 72.6 ± 8.0 kg; VO2max: 59.0 ± 6.7 mL·kg–1·min–1) completed repeat progressive maximal tests (PMT) and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) tests at 90% VO2max wearing either manufacturer-recommended LBCG (rLBCG), undersized LBCG (uLBCG), or loose running shorts (CONT). During all exercise testing, several systemic and peripheral physiological measures were taken.

Results:

The results indicated similar effects of wearing rLBCG and uLBCG compared with the control. Across the PMT, wearing either LBCG resulted in significantly (P < .05) increased oxygen consumption, O2 pulse, and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) and decreased running economy, oxyhemoglobin, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) at low-intensity speeds (8–10 km·h–1). At higher speeds (12–18 km·h-1), wearing LBCG increased regional blood fow (nTHI) and HHb values, but significantly lowered heart rate and TOI. During the TTE, wearing either LBCG significantly (P < .05) increased HHb concentration, whereas wearing uLBCG also significantly (P < .05) increased nTHI. No improvement in endurance running performance was observed in either compression condition.

Conclusion:

The results suggest that wearing LBCG facilitated a small number of cardiorespiratory and peripheral physiological benefits that appeared mostly related to improvements in venous flow. However, these improvements appear trivial to athletes, as they did not correspond to any improvement in endurance running performance.

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Ching-Lin Wu and Clyde Williams

This study investigated the effects of ingesting a low (LGI) or high (HGI) glyce-mic index carbohydrate (CHO) meal 3 h prior to exercise on endurance running capacity. Eight male recreational runners undertook two trials (LGI or HGI) which were randomized and separated by 7 d. After an overnight fast (12 h) the subjects ingested either a LGI or HGI meal 3 h prior to running at 70% VO2max until exhaustion. The meals contained 2 g/kg body mass CHO and were isocaloric and iso-macronutrient with calculated GI values 77 and 37 for the HGI and LGI respectively. The run times for the LGI and HGI trials were 108.8 ± 4.1 min and 101.4 ± 5.2 min respectively (P = 0.038). Fat oxidation rates were higher during exercise after the LGI meal than after the HGI meal (P < 0.05). In summary, ingestion of a LGI meal 3 h before exercise resulted in a greater endurance capacity than after the ingestion of a HGI meal.

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Ya Jun Chen, Stephen H. Wong, Chun Kwok Wong, Ching Wan Lam, Ya Jun Huang, and Parco M. Siu

This study examined the effect of ingesting 3 isocaloric meals with different glycemic indices (GI) and glycemic loads (GL) 2 hr before exercise on metabolic responses and endurance running performance. Eight male runners completed 3 trials in a randomized order, separated by at least 7 days. Carbohydrate (CHO) content (%), GI, and GL were, respectively, 65%, 79, and 82 for the high-GI/high-GL meal (H-H); 65%, 40, and 42 for the low-GI/low-GL meal (L-L); and 36%, 78, and 44 for the high-GI/low-GL meal (H-L). Each trial consisted of a 1-hr run at 70% VO2max, followed by a 10-km performance run. Low-GL diets (H-L and L-L) were found to induce smaller metabolic changes during the postprandial period and during exercise, which were characterized by a lower CHO oxidation in the 2 trials (p < .05) and a concomitant, higher glycerol and free-fatty-acid concentration in the H-L trial (p < .05). There was no difference, however, in time to complete the preloaded 10-km performance run between trials. This suggests that the GL of the preexercise meal has an important role in determining subsequent metabolic responses.

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Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Francisco Fernández-Povedano, Jesús Salas-Sánchez, Felipe García-Pinillos, and Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla

). Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity ( Pageaux & Lepers, 2016 ). There are several factors that predict endurance running performance. The classic physiological variables linked to endurance performance are maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max

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Irena Auersperger, Bojan Knap, Ales Jerin, Rok Blagus, Mitja Lainscak, Milan Skitek, and Branko Skof

Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week’s recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p = .02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p < .001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p = .01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p < .001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p < .001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation.

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Stephen H. Wong, Clyde Williams, and Neville Adams

This randomized, double-blind study examined the effects of rehydration per se and rehydration plus carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during recovery (REC) on subsequent endurance running capacity. Nine men ran at 70% V̇O2max on a level treadmill for 90 min (Tl) on two occasions, followed by a 4 hour REC and a further exhaustive run at the same speed (T2). During the first 3 hours of REC, subjects drank either a 6.9% CHO-electrolyte solution (CE) or a CHO- and electrolyte-free sweetened placebo (PL) every 30 min. Volumes prescribed were 200% of the fluid lost after Tl. but the actual volume of fluid ingested during the REC ranged from 113–200% and 88.5–200% of the body mass lost for the CE and PL trials (NS). However, positive fluid balance was found in both trials after REC. During T2. run time was 24.3 ± 4.4 min longer in the CE trial (69.3 ± 5.5 vs. 45.0 ± 4.2 min; p < .05). Higher blood glucose concentrations were observed throughout REC in the CE trial. These results suggest that ingesting a CHO-electrolyte solution is more effective in restoring endurance capacity compared to the same large volume of placebo, even though complete rehydration was achieved in both trials.