The effect of oral creatine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance was investigated in 16 elite male rowers during 7-day endurance training. Before and after the daily ingestion of 20 g creatine monohydrate for 5 days (Cr-Group, n = 8) or placebo (Pl-Group, n = 8), subjects performed two exercise tests on a rowing ergometer: (a) incremental exercise consisting of 3-min stage durations and increased by 50 W until volitional exhaustion; (b) an all-out anaerobic exercise performed against a constant load of 7 W/kg. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were determined during exercise and recovery. Maximal power output did not significantly differ after the treatment in either group. The mean individual lactate threshold rose significantly after Cr treatment from 314.3 ± 5.0 W to 335.6 ± 7.1 W (p < .01), as compared with 305.0 ± 6.9 W and 308.9 ± 5.9 W (ns), before and after placebo ingestion, respectively. During the anaerobic test, the athletes supplemented with creatine were able to continue rowing longer (mean increase, 12.1 ± 4.5 s; p < .01) than Pl-Group (2.4 ± 8.2 s; ns). No significant differences were found between groups in blood LA after the all-out exercise. The results indicate that in elite rowers, creatine supplementation improves endurance (expressed by the individual lactate threshold) and anaerobic performance, independent of the effect of intensive endurance training.
Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Aerobic Performance and Anaerobic Capacity in Elite Rowers in the Course of Endurance Training
The Evolution of World-Class Endurance Training: The Scientist’s View on Current and Future Trends
Øyvind Sandbakk, David B. Pyne, Kerry McGawley, Carl Foster, Rune Kjøsen Talsnes, Guro Strøm Solli, Grégoire P. Millet, Stephen Seiler, Paul B. Laursen, Thomas Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Randy Wilber, Teun van Erp, Trent Stellingwerff, Hans-Christer Holmberg, and Silvana Bucher Sandbakk
training programs, as well as limitations in the type, quality, or applicability of research studies that can be executed with elite performers. To gain complementary insight into current and future trends associated with world-class endurance training, this commentary is based on the perspectives
Brain Endurance Training Improves Physical, Cognitive, and Multitasking Performance in Professional Football Players
Walter Staiano, Michele Merlini, Marco Romagnoli, Ulrich Kirk, Christopher Ring, and Samuele Marcora
physical and mental effort involve several overlapping brain regions, 9 Marcora et al 10 proposed an innovative training method—brain endurance training (BET)—to increase the cognitive load of physical training to make athletes more resilient to mental fatigue and improve their endurance performance
Effect of Intensified Endurance Training on Pacing and Performance in 4000-m Cycling Time Trials
Alice M. Wallett, Amy L. Woods, Nathan Versey, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, and Kevin G. Thompson
generally incorporate a period of recovery following intensified training to foster physiological adaptations, with the ultimate aim of leading to an overall improvement in performance. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether a period of intensified endurance training (a mesocycle) would
Presleep Protein Supplementation Does Not Improve Recovery During Consecutive Days of Intense Endurance Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen, and Mette Hansen
repair, tissue remodeling, and adaptation to endurance training, more so than promoting muscle protein accretion. Previous findings from our laboratory suggest that the ingestion of 0.3 g protein per kg body weight immediately before and after endurance training sessions improves performance and reduces
Effects of Increased Load of Low- Versus High-Intensity Endurance Training on Performance and Physiological Adaptations in Endurance Athletes
Rune K. Talsnes, Roland van den Tillaar, and Øyvind Sandbakk
Endurance training involves the manipulation of training intensity, duration, frequency, and mode, with the goal of maximizing physiological adaptations and performance. 1 , 2 Accordingly, the organization and optimization of endurance training, and in particular training volume and intensity
Blood Lipid and Physiological Responses to Endurance Training in Adolescents
Daniel L. Blessing, Robert E. Keith, Henry N. Williford, Marjean E. Blessing, and Jeff A. Barksdale
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an endurance training program on blood lipids and lipoproteins in adolescents. Fifteen males and 10 females, ages 13 to 18 years, underwent pretest evaluations, including physical measurements, nutritional intake, physical working capacity (PWC), and fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. Physical conditioning consisted of a 16-week progressive endurance training (ET) program 40 min·day1 three times per week. Twenty-five males and females matched for age, sex, and race served as controls. Following the conditioning program, the ET group had a significant increase (p < .05) in PWC and a significant decrease (p < .05) in sum of skinfolds and resting heart rate. A significant decrease (p < .05) was also noted for total cholesterol (TC) and the ratio of TC to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with a significant increase (p < .05) in HDL-C. No differences were found for the control group. The results suggest that 16 weeks of endurance training favorably improves blood lipid profiles in adolescents.
The Effectiveness of a 30-Week Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Program in Preparation for an Ultra-Endurance Handcycling Challenge: A Case Study
Jonpaul Nevin and Paul Smith
concurrent strength and endurance training program was completed. 8 , 16 The program was divided into 2 consecutive phases. Phase one (P1) consisted of 15 weeks of accumulated training, focused upon the development of aerobic capacity, GME, and upper body work capacity. Phase two (P2) was 12 weeks in length
Training-Load-Guided vs Standardized Endurance Training in Recreational Runners
Moritz Schumann, Javier Botella, Laura Karavirta, and Keijo Häkkinen
To compare the effects of a standardized endurance-training program with individualized endurance training modified based on the cumulative training load provided by the Polar training-load feature.
After 12 wk of similar training, 24 recreationally endurance-trained men were matched to a training-load-guided (TL, n = 10) or standardized (ST, n = 14) group and continued training for 12 wk. In TL, training sessions were individually chosen daily based on an estimated cumulative training load, whereas in ST the training was standardized with 4–6 sessions/wk. Endurance performance (shortest 1000-m running time during an incremental field test of 6 × 1000 m) and heart-rate variability (HRV) were measured every 4 wk, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured during an incremental treadmill test every 12 wk.
During weeks 1–12, similar changes in VO2max and 1000-m time were observed in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .004 and –6% ± 4%, P = .069) and ST (+5% ± 7%, P = .019 and –8% ± 5%, P < .001). During wk 13–24, VO2max statistically increased in ST only (3% ± 4%, P = .034). The 1000-m time decreased in TL during wk 13–24 (–9% ± 5%, P = .011), but in ST only during wk 13–20 (–3% ± 2%, P = .003). The overall changes in VO2max and 1000-m time during wk 0–24 were similar in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .001 and –9% ± 5%, P = .011) and ST (+10% ± 7%, P < .001 and –13% ± 5%, P < .001). No between-groups differences in total training volume and frequency were observed. HRV remained statistically unaltered in both groups.
The main finding was that training performed according to the cumulative training load led to improvements in endurance performance similar to those with standardized endurance training in recreational endurance runners.
The Effect of Prior Endurance Training on Nap Sleep Patterns
Daniel J. Davies, Kenneth S. Graham, and Chin Moi Chow
The use of daytime napping as a recovery tool following exercise is virtually unexplored. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of daytime nap sleep following endurance training in an athletic population, and to appraise the optimal circadian timing of the nap and the time interval between training and the nap.
Six physically trained male subjects (22.5 ± 2.4 y) performed four separate standardized 90-min endurance training sessions followed by a 90-min daytime nap either 1 or 2 h after training (time interval), commencing at either 10:30 or 11:30 (circadian timing). During the nap, sleep was monitored using polysomnography. Subjective measurements of sleep quality, alertness and preparedness to train following a nap were recorded using a visual analog scale.
The duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly greater during the 11:30 naps (13.7 ± 9.0 min) compared with the 10:30 naps (6.9 ± 8.8 min) (P = .049). There was no significant difference in SWS duration between a 1-h (10.6 ± 10.2 min) or 2-h (10.0 ± 9.0 min) time interval between training and the nap (P = .82). No other sleep variables differed significantly according to circadian timing or time interval.
Recovery naps commenced later in the morning contain more SWS than earlier naps. The data imply that daytime naps have a potential role as a valuable recovery tool following endurance exercise, given the suggested energy restorative functions of SWS.