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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

Track and field athletes have intense physiological demands and require optimized nutrition ( Burke et al., 2019 ; Slater et al., 2018 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2018 ; Sygo et al., 2019 ). Track and field athletes may experience low energy availability (LEA) due to disordered eating (DE) behavior

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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

In 2014, the International Olympic Committee first used the term Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) to describe the lack of energy for performance and health in female and male athletes. The underlying premise of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), whereby the amount of dietary energy

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

systems, including, but not limited to, the endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as menstrual function and bone health. The underlying cause of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), defined as the amount of energy relative to fat-free mass remaining for physiological

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

bioenergetics, energy availability (EA) is defined as energy that can be devoted to individual body systems. In sports nutrition, EA is more specifically defined as the residual energy available to support an athlete’s body functions, once the energy expenditure of exercise (EEE) is deducted from energy intake

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Petter Fagerberg

Energy availability (EA) is a scientific concept describing how much energy is available for basic metabolic functions such as building bones and creating hormones when energy expended in exercise (exercise energy expenditure, EEE) has been subtracted from daily total energy intake (TEI; Loucks et

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke

nutrition is the recognition of the relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome in male athletes. 6 , 7 The underpinning cause of this issue is low energy availability (LEA)—a mismatch between energy intake and the energy committed to the athlete’s daily training/event program, such that the energy costs

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Sarah J. Woodruff and Renee D. Meloche

Female athletes should aim to achieve energy balance to maintain health and have a high performance output. The purpose of this study was to investigate energy availability (EA) among members of a medium-size Canadian Interuniversity Sport women’s volleyball team and to describe exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) during practices, game warm-ups, and games. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed over 7 d using the Bodymedia Sensewear Mini armband, while energy intake (EI) was measured with dietary food logs. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). Energy availability was calculated using the equation EA = (EIkcal – ExEEkcal)/kg fat-free mass (FFM). Participants consumed 3,435 (± 1,172) kcal/day and expended 3479 (± 604) kcal/day. Mean EA was 42.5 kcal · kg FFM-1 · d-1 across all 7 d, and 2 participants fell below the 30-kcal · kg FFM-1 · d-1 threshold. Furthermore, participants expended 511 (± 216), 402 (± 50), and 848 (± 155) kcal during practices, game warm-ups, and games, respectively. Overall, the participants were relatively weight stable and should be encouraged to continue fueling their exercise and high ExEE needs with appropriate nutritional strategies.

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

Low energy availability (EA) is the failure of athletes to consume sufficient energy to cover the energy cost of exercise as well as energy required for optimal metabolic function and health ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Low EA has been reported in both female ( Melin et al., 2015 ) and male ( Viner et

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Joanne Slater, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Rachel Brown and Katherine Black

Low energy availability (LEA) describes the disruption in normal physiological function existent when insufficient energy intake is combined with exercise. To conserve energy a range of endocrine adaptations occur, impairing health and athletic performance. The prevalence of LEA has not been fully established especially among recreational exercisers. Determining recreational exercisers at risk of LEA may help to maximize prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The design of this study was a cross-sectional online survey. One-hundred and nine female recreational exercisers, with a mean age of 23.8 (SD 6.9) years were recruited via gyms and fitness centers throughout NZ. Participants completed an online questionnaire including questions from the LEAF-Q (Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire). A total of 45.0% (CI, 35.4%, 54.8%) of participants were classified as “at risk“ of LEA. For every extra hour of exercise per week the odds of being at risk of LEA were 1.13 times greater (CI 1.02, 1.25, p = .016). All participants reporting previous stress fracture injuries (n = 4) were classified as at risk for LEA. Significantly more subjects participating in an individual sport were classified as at risk for LEA (69.6%, CI 24.3%, 54.8%) compared with team sports (34.8%, CI 18.7%, 40.5%) (p = .006). The high prevalence of female recreational exercisers at risk of LEA is of concern, emphasizing the importance of increasing awareness of the issue, and promoting prevention and early detection strategies, so treatment can be implemented before health is severely compromised.

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Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Dan Bergland, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Antti A. Mero and Trent Stellingwerff

energy availability (EA), which is defined as the dietary energy available to support body function once the energy cost of exercise has been deducted from daily energy intake. 14 Low EA has detrimental effects on many areas of health and training adaptation, including impairment of menstrual status