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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), a term first described by the International Olympic Committee in 2014, refers to the potential health and performance consequences of inadequate energy for sport ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). The concept was derived from initial work on the female athlete

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin

reported to be at increased risk of restricted eating behavior and relative energy deficiency related to serious health conditions, including eating disorders, premature osteoporosis, and increased cardiovascular risk factors ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ; Nattiv et al., 2007 ). There

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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza

Energy deficiency in exercising women is associated with severe consequences including reproductive dysfunction ( De Souza et al., 2007b ; Williams et al., 2015 ) and impaired bone health ( De Souza et al., 2008 ), a condition referred to as the Female Athlete Triad (Triad) ( De Souza et al., 2014

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Susan Carter

president of the American College of Sports Medicine in 1988. Barbara was a forerunner in the field of female athlete triad (Triad)/relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Beyond this, Barbara was also vocal in the arena of women in sport, including increased opportunity and participation, total

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

Ballet dancers are reported to have an increased risk for low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating (DE) behavior or eating disorders ( Doyle-Lucas et al., 2010 ; Lagowska et al., 2014 ; Nattiv et al., 2007 ). Energy deficiency is related to impaired performance and a wide

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a syndrome resulting from an energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake (EI) and the energy expenditure (EE) required to support homeostasis, health, activities of daily living, growth, and sport. RED-S affects

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

Recognition of low energy availability (LEA) in male athletes, associated with a range of negative outcomes, played a role in the framing of the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Indeed, a variety of scenarios have been investigated in which male

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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman

Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) are two similar syndromes underpinned by low energy availability (LEA) that can have negative health consequences in athletes ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Triad was originally described in 1993

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Margo L. Mountjoy, Louise M. Burke, Trent Stellingwerff and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

from the scientific and sports communities; and rightly so, given the impact on athlete health. But what about the issue of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)? Does RED-S also need a dramatic event or a Hollywood ambassador to draw attention to the hidden danger it poses to an athlete’s health

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

. Although we also acknowledge our inability to assess energy availability (owing to the lack of assessments of daily energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure), we observed that the athlete exhibited clear symptoms of the relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome (RED-S; Mountjoy et al., 2014