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Dionne A. Noordhof, Thijs Schoots, Derk H. Hoekert and Jos J. de Koning

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to test the assumption that gross efficiency (GE) at sea level (SL) is representative of GE at altitude (AL). It was hypothesized that an increased cost of ventilation and heart rate, combined with a higher respiratory-exchange ratio, at AL might result in a decrease in GE.

Methods:

Trained men (N = 16) completed 2 maximal incremental tests and 2 GE tests, 1 at SL and 1 at an acute simulated AL of 1500 m (hypobaric chamber). GE was determined during submaximal exercise at 45%, 55%, and 65% of the altitude-specific power output attained at VO2max.

Results:

GE determined at the highest submaximal exercise intensity with a mean RER ≤1.0, matched for both conditions, was significantly lower at AL (AL 20.7% ± 1.1% and SL 21.4% ± 0.8%, t 15 = 2.9, P < .05).

Conclusion:

These results demonstrate that moderate AL resulted in a significantly lower GE during cycling exercise than SL. However, it might be that the lower GE at AL is caused by the lower absolute exercise intensity.

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Jos J. de Koning, Cees-Jan van der Zweep, Jesper Cornelissen and Bouke Kuiper

Optimal pacing strategy was determined for breaking the world speed record on a human-powered vehicle (HPV) using an energy-flow model in which the rider’s physical capacities, the vehicle’s properties, and the environmental conditions were included. Power data from world-record attempts were compared with data from the model, and race protocols were adjusted to the results from the model. HPV performance can be improved by using an energy-flow model for optimizing race strategy. A biphased in-run followed by a sprint gave best results.

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels and Jos J. de Koning

:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824f206c 22344058 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824f206c 8. de Koning JJ , Bobbert MF , Foster C . Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model . J Sci Med Sport . 1999 ; 2 ( 3 ): 266 – 277 . PubMed ID: 10668763 doi:10.1016/S1440

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Samuel Sigrist, Thomas Maier and Raphael Faiss

, Foster C . Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model . J Sci Med Sport . 1999 ; 2 ( 3 ): 266 – 277 . PubMed doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80178-9 10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80178-9 11. Hughes M , Franks IM . Notational analysis of sport: systems for better

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Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson and Brook Galna

authors or the journal. References 1. de Koning JJ , Bobbert MF , Foster C . Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model . J Sci Med Sport . 1999 ; 2 : 266 – 277 . PubMed ID: 10668763 doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80178-9 10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80178-9 2

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Alice M. Wallett, Amy L. Woods, Nathan Versey, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

athletic competition . Sports Med . 2008 ; 38 ( 3 ): 239 – 252 . PubMed ID: 18278984 doi:10.2165/00007256-200838030-00004 18278984 10.2165/00007256-200838030-00004 3. de Koning JJ , Bobbert MF , Foster C . Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model . J

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Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey

-intensity cycling performance . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2005 ; 37 : 838 – 845 . PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000162617.18250.77 10.1249/01.MSS.0000162617.18250.77 15870639 12. de Koning JJ , Bobbert MF , Foster C . Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model . J Sci