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Energy Availability in Athletics: Health, Performance, and Physique

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde, and Margo Mountjoy

Track and field athletes have intense physiological demands and require optimized nutrition ( Burke et al., 2019 ; Slater et al., 2018 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2018 ; Sygo et al., 2019 ). Track and field athletes may experience low energy availability (LEA) due to disordered eating (DE) behavior

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Case Study: Energy Availability and Endocrine Markers in Elite Male Track Cyclists

Katherine L. Schofield, Holly Thorpe, and Stacy T. Sims

Low energy availability (LEA), defined as inadequate energy intake relative to exercise energy expenditure, is the underlying cause of relative energy deficiency in sport and manifests in a range of health and performance impairments. 1 Relative energy deficiency in sport has predominantly been

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Body Composition, Energy Availability, Training, and Menstrual Status in Female Runners

Johanna K. Ihalainen, Oona Kettunen, Kerry McGawley, Guro Strøm Solli, Anthony C. Hackney, Antti A. Mero, and Heikki Kyröläinen

undesirable consequences when an athlete aims for negative energy balance and weight reduction, which can lead to severely negative effects on health and performance. 5 Energy availability (EA) is defined as “ energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure ” and represents the amount of dietary energy

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The Utility of the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire to Detect Markers Consistent With Low Energy Availability-Related Conditions in a Mixed-Sport Cohort

Margot A. Rogers, Michael K. Drew, Renee Appaneal, Greg Lovell, Bronwen Lundy, David Hughes, Nicole Vlahovich, Gordon Waddington, and Louise M. Burke

Low energy availability (LEA) is a state wherein dietary energy intake fails to support normal physiological functioning once the energy committed to exercise has been removed, and has been associated with negative health outcomes ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Modest periods of LEA may be integral to

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Hepcidin as a Prospective Individualized Biomarker for Individuals at Risk of Low Energy Availability

Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black, and Wendy J. O’Brien

In 2014, the International Olympic Committee first used the term Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) to describe the lack of energy for performance and health in female and male athletes. The underlying premise of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), whereby the amount of dietary energy

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Reduced Endurance Capacity and Suboptimal Energy Availability in Top-Level Female Cyclists

Gabriel Barreto, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Tiemi Saito, Rafael Klosterhoff, Pedro Perim, Eimear Dolan, Rosa Maria R. Pereira, Patrícia Campos-Ferraz, Fernanda R. Lima, and Bryan Saunders

competition each year. 2 Intense athletic calendars like these require careful periodization of both training and nutrition practices, 3 to ensure optimal performance and health throughout the season. Energy availability (EA) refers to the amount of energy available for basic physiological processes, such as

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Prevalence of Indicators of Low Energy Availability in Elite Female Sprinters

Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy, and Jamie F. Burr

systems, including, but not limited to, the endocrine, cardiovascular, immune, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as menstrual function and bone health. The underlying cause of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), defined as the amount of energy relative to fat-free mass remaining for physiological

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Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes

Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz, and Anna K. Melin

bioenergetics, energy availability (EA) is defined as energy that can be devoted to individual body systems. In sports nutrition, EA is more specifically defined as the residual energy available to support an athlete’s body functions, once the energy expenditure of exercise (EEE) is deducted from energy intake

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Negative Consequences of Low Energy Availability in Natural Male Bodybuilding: A Review

Petter Fagerberg

Energy availability (EA) is a scientific concept describing how much energy is available for basic metabolic functions such as building bones and creating hormones when energy expended in exercise (exercise energy expenditure, EEE) has been subtracted from daily total energy intake (TEI; Loucks et

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Energy Availability Over One Athletic Season: An Observational Study Among Athletes From Different Sports

Filipe Jesus, Mónica Sousa, Catarina L. Nunes, Ruben Francisco, Paulo Rocha, Cláudia S. Minderico, Luís B. Sardinha, and Analiza M. Silva

Energy availability (EA) is the difference between energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure (EEE) in relation to fat-free mass (FFM) ( Loucks & Thuma, 2003 ). The threshold for clinical low EA (i.e., <30 kcal/kg FFM) was defined when Professor Anne Loucks and Professor Jean Thuma observed