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John Stoszkowski and Hans Amato

date: namely, bioenergetics and the impact of energy metabolism. First, we provide an outline of the bioenergetic view, with a focus on energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and the influence they may have on coach learning and development, offering insight into how and why energetic status

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Hermann-J. Engels, John C. Wirth, Sueda Celik, and Jodee L. Dorsey

This study assessed the influence of caffeine on metabolic and cardiovascular functions during sustained, light intensity cycling and at rest. Eight healthy, recreationally active adults participated in four randomly assigned, double-blind experimental trials of 60 min upright seated cycle exercise (30% VO2max) or equivalent rest with caffeine (5 mg ⋅ kg−1) or placebo consumed 60 min prior to data collection. Gas exchange was measured by open-circuit spirom-etry indirect calorimetry. Global blood flow was evaluated by thoracic impedance cardiography and arterial blood pressure by auscultation. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that pretrial caffeine increased oxygen uptake and energy expenditure rate (p < 0.05) but did not change respiratory exchange ratio. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were elevated following caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance were not significantly different between caffeine and placebo sessions. For each of the metabolic and hemodynamic variables examined, the effects of caffeine were similar during constant-load, light intensity cycling and at rest. These data illustrate that caffeine's mild thermogenic influence can be mediated without a major shift in substrate oxidation mixture. Caffeine at this dosage level alters cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting arterial blood pressure.

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Soraya Martín-Manjarrés, Carlos Rodríguez-López, María Martín-García, Sara Vila-Maldonado, Cristina Granados, Esmeralda Mata, Ángel Gil-Agudo, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, and Ignacio Ara

People with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to be more sedentary and increase fat accumulation, which could have a negative influence on metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity to oxidize fat in a homogenous sample of men with thoracic SCI compared with healthy noninjured men during an arm cycling incremental test. Forty-one men, 21 with SCI and 20 noninjured controls, performed an incremental arm cycling test to determine peak fat oxidation (PFO) and the intensity of exercise that elicits PFO (Fatmax). PFO was expressed in absolute values (g/min) and relative to whole-body and upper-body lean mass ([mg·min−1]·kg−1) through three different models (adjusting by cardiorespiratory fitness and fat mass). Gross mechanical efficiency was also calculated. PFO was higher in SCI than in noninjured men (0.27 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.07 g/min; 5.39 ± 1.30 vs. 3.29 ± 1.31 [mg·min−1]·kg−1 whole-body lean mass; 8.28 ± 2.11 vs. 5.08 ± 2.12 [mg·min−1]·kg−1 upper-body lean mass). Fatmax was found at a significantly higher percentage of VO2peak in men with SCI (33.6% ± 8.2% vs. 23.6% ± 6.4%). Differences persisted and even increased in the fully adjustment model and at any intensity. Men with SCI showed significantly higher gross mechanical efficiency at 35 and 65 W than the noninjured group. Men with SCI showed higher fat oxidation when compared with noninjured men at any intensity, even increased after full adjustment for lean mass, fat mass, and cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest that SCI men could improve their metabolic flexibility and muscle mass for greater efficiency, not being affected by their fat accumulation.

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Stephen H. Wong, Clyde Williams, and Neville Adams

This randomized, double-blind study examined the effects of rehydration per se and rehydration plus carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during recovery (REC) on subsequent endurance running capacity. Nine men ran at 70% V̇O2max on a level treadmill for 90 min (Tl) on two occasions, followed by a 4 hour REC and a further exhaustive run at the same speed (T2). During the first 3 hours of REC, subjects drank either a 6.9% CHO-electrolyte solution (CE) or a CHO- and electrolyte-free sweetened placebo (PL) every 30 min. Volumes prescribed were 200% of the fluid lost after Tl. but the actual volume of fluid ingested during the REC ranged from 113–200% and 88.5–200% of the body mass lost for the CE and PL trials (NS). However, positive fluid balance was found in both trials after REC. During T2. run time was 24.3 ± 4.4 min longer in the CE trial (69.3 ± 5.5 vs. 45.0 ± 4.2 min; p < .05). Higher blood glucose concentrations were observed throughout REC in the CE trial. These results suggest that ingesting a CHO-electrolyte solution is more effective in restoring endurance capacity compared to the same large volume of placebo, even though complete rehydration was achieved in both trials.

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Paolo C. Colombani, Eva Kovacs, Petra Frey-Rindova, Walter Frey, Wolfgang Langhans, Myrtha Arnold, and Caspar Wenk

A field study was performed to investigate the acute influence of a milk protein hydrolysate supplemented drink (CHO+PRO) on metabolism during and after a marathon run compared to the same drink without protein (CHO). Carbohydrate metabolites and hormones were not influenced by CHO+PRO. Levels of plasma free fatty acids were significantly lower and levels of urea and most amino acids were significantly higher with CHO+PRO. Sweat urea and ammonia nitrogen excretion during the run as well as urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion during the entire exercise day was similar with both treatments. Urinary total nitrogen was significantly increased and urinary pH decreased with CHO+PRO. It was concluded that the supplemented protein was absorbed and probably at least partially oxidized during the run and that no obvious negative metabolic effects occurred. CHO+PRO did not acutely affect myofibrillar protein breakdown as assessed by the 3-methylhistidine method: however, total body protein breakdown was not measured.

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James L. Seale, Robert S. VanZant, and Joan M. Conway

Fifteen adult male volunteers were assigned to sedentary, moderately strength-trained, and moderately endurance-trained groups (5 per group) to determine the effect of exercise training on energy expenditure (EE). Subjects were matched for age, weight, and height. Group appointments were based on activity questionnaires and American College of Sports Medicine standards. Subjects consumed a mixed diet of 40% fat, 20% protein, and 40% carbohydrate at weight maintenance intake for 3 weeks while continuing their exercise training programs. There was no significant difference between groups for 24-hr EE measured in the controlled environment of a room-sized calorimeter. Free-living EE measured with H 2 2 18 O in endurance- and strength-trained groups was significantly higher (19.4% and 35.1%, respectively) than in the sedentary group. Moderate endurance and strength training increased free-living EE but did not affect 24-hr EE when groups followed standardized activity schedules. These results suggest that increased EE caused by moderate exercise training is limited to the energy required to complete the exercise.

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Mahmoud S. El-Sayed, Angelheart J.M. Rattu, Xia Lin, and Thomas Reilly

We examined the effects of active warm-down (AWD) and carbohydrate ingestion on plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glucose changes into recovery following prolonged submaximal exercise. Subjects in Group 1 cycled at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake ( VO 2 max ); carbohydrate (CHO) or placebo (PLA) was ingested 15 min before and 45 min during exercise. In the AWD experiment, exercise was followed immediately by an AWD and subjects were given a placebo solution. Group 2 subjects consumed CHO or PLA at 75 min during and after exercise at 70% VO 2 max . ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels only in Group 1, with a concomitant increase in FFA concentrations during exercise in both groups. Carbohydrate ingestion in Groups 1 and 2 significantly decreased the normal response of FFAs during exercise and markedly reduced the normal elevation of FFAs in recovery. AWD following submaximal exercise had no effect on plasma FFA elevations in recovery. These results suggest that carbohydrate ingestion, but not active warm-down, attenuates FFA elevations in recovery.

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Michael I. Goran

The doubly labeled water technique represents an unobtrusive and noninvasive means to measure total daily energy expenditure in free-living human subjects who are unaware that energy expenditure is being measured. When combined with measurement of resting energy expenditure, the doubly labeled water technique can also be used to estimate energy expenditure related to physical activity. The relatively recent availability of the doubly labeled water technique in humans has led to several advances in the fundamental understanding of whole body energy metabolism in several important areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the areas in which the doubly labeled water technique has specifically advanced our understanding of whole-body energy metabolism in young children.

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Kimberly M. White, Roseann M. Lyle, Michael G. Flynn, Dorothy Teegarden, and Shawn S. Donkin

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of acute dairy calcium intake on exercise energy metabolism and endurance performance. Trained female runners completed two trials. Each trial consisted of a 90-min glycogen depletion run followed by a self-paced 10K time trial, conducted one hour after consumption of a high dairy (500 mg Ca+2) or low dairy (80 mg Ca+2) meal. During the 90-min run, blood samples and respiratory gases were collected. No treatment main effects of acute dairy intake were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER), calculated fat oxidation, lactate, glycerol, or 10K time. Following this protocol, acute dairy calcium intake did not alter fat utilization or endurance performance in trained female runners.

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Cynthia A. Gillette, Richard C. Bullough, and Christopher L. Melby

Postexercise energy metabolism was examined in male subjects age 22-35 years in response to three different treatments: a strenuous bout of resistive exercise (REx), a bout of stationary cycling (AEx) at 50% peak VO 2 , and a control condition (C) of quiet sitting. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured the morning of and the morning following each condition. Recovery oxygen consumption (RcO2) was measured for 5 hr following each treatment. Total 5-hr RcO 2 was higher for the REx treatment relative to both AEx and C, with the largest treatment differences occurring early during recovery. There were no large treatment differences in postexercise respiratory exchange ratio values, except for the first hour of recovery following REx. RMR measured 14.5 hr postexercise for the REx condition was significantly elevated compared to C. These results suggest that strenuous resistive exercise results in a greater excess postexercise oxygen consumption compared to steady-state endurance exercise of similar estimated energy cost.