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Lynn Van den Berghe, Isabel B. Tallir, Greet Cardon, Nathalie Aelterman and Leen Haerens

Starting from self-determination theory, we explored whether student engagement/disengagement relates to teachers’ need support and whether this relationship is moderated by teachers’ causality orientations. A sample of 2004 students situated in 127 classes taught by 33 physical education teachers participated in the study. Both teachers and students reported on students’ (dis)engagement, allowing investigation of the proposed relationships both at the student and teacher level. Most of the variance in need support was at the student level, but there was also between-teacher and between-class variance in need support. Engagement related to more need support, but only at the student level. In total, few moderation effects were found. Teachers with a relatively low controlled orientation were more need supportive when perceiving their students as emotionally and behaviorally engaged. By making teachers aware of these dynamics, automatic responses to student engagement can be better thought out. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Olan Kees Martin Scott and Alicia R. Stanway

The higher education sector increasingly uses social media as an educational tool to develop a sense of community and foster student engagement, particularly as social networking sites have become an integral part of the lives of digital natives. The current study sought to explore whether the use of Twitter could foster student engagement in a sport marketing course, specifically by embedding Twitter through two assessments, online lectures and weekly tasks. Mean score comparisons indicated that over a 13-week semester, students (N = 68) felt more engaged and included in the course because it had Twitter, found Twitter to be relatively easy to use, and the use of social media aligned with course objectives. The results of the current study have salience in sport management education, because the effective use of Twitter within a higher education context demonstrates how the use of social media can foster engagement with course materials.

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Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill, Nikos Ntoumanis, Howard K. Hall and Gareth E. Jowett

Research adopting self-determination theory (SDT) supports a mediation model whereby coach motivational styles (autonomy support and interpersonal control) predict athletes’ engagement and disaffection in youth sport via the satisfaction and frustration of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Our study extends this research by examining SDT’s mediation model longitudinally with three waves of data. Two hundred fifty-two youth sports participants (M age = 12.98; SD = 1.84; range = 11–17; female n = 67) completed measures of study variables at the start, middle, and end of a competitive soccer season. Cross-lagged path analyses revealed that associations between the two coach motivational styles and athletes’ engagement were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. Furthermore, a positive reciprocal association between psychological need satisfaction and engagement emerged over time. This study therefore supports the temporal assumptions underpinning SDT’s mediation model but, importantly, evidences a mutually reinforcing interplay between athletes’ psychological needs and their engaged behavior.

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Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens

Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, M age = 14.36 ± 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students’ personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory’s emphasis on quality of motivation.

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Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese

potential to impact outcomes of athlete psychological health ( Jowett & Shanmugam, 2016 ). Psychological health outcomes of burnout and engagement are important to understand in athlete populations because increasing the overall health and well-being of athletes may lead to more satisfied and resilient

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Jence A. Rhoads, Marcos Daou, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller

with superior motor learning; however, individual participants’ motivation does not predict their motor learning when controlling for their group assignment. Additionally, motor learning and performance research has recently considered engagement, which reflects the experience of focused attention and

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J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch and Travis A. Flitton

examination of parent perceptions of parent–child relationship markers of warmth and conflict within the context of youth sport will benefit understanding of parents’ psychological outcomes of burnout and engagement, important psychological health outcomes for sport parents. Both anecdotal (e.g.,  Nack

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Akio Kubota, Alison Carver and Takemi Sugiyama

activity among older adults in Germany ( Herbolsheimer, Mosler, & Peter, 2016 ). Another social aspect that may be relevant to older adults’ physical activity is social engagement. Social engagement may include taking part in events, meetings, and activities within a local community. It can be argued that

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Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Paul D. Loprinzi

studies analyzing a nationally representative sample of US adults. In addition to the few studies demonstrating equivocal results with regard to skeletal muscle strength and cancer-specific mortality, few studies have examined the importance of the behavioral engagement in muscle-strengthening activities

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Scott Pierce, Jedediah Blanton and Daniel Gould

, 2012 ), it has been argued that the profession has yet to reach its full potential for connecting with and informing the many sport stakeholders in the community ( Gould, 2016 ). For this reason, examining and describing these roles of SPPs through the lens of community engagement can provide insight