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David R. Bassett, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, Lynn B. Panton, Philip E. Martin and Ann M. Swartz

general elements: (a) physical activity in health, wellness, and quality of life; (b) scientific foundations of physical activity; (c) cultural, historical, and physical dimensions of physical activity; and (d) the practice of physical activity ( Chodzko-Zajko, 2014 ). Undergraduate enrollments in

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George A. Chressanthis and Paul W. Grimes

This paper investigates the effect of winning, postseason play, and television appearances for football and basketball on first-year student enrollment demand over a 21-year period at a representative NCAA Division I institution. Empirical estimates confirm popular notions that winning on the football field, after traditional enrollment demand factors are controlled, does attract students. However, postseason play and television coverage have no significant effect. The results also suggest that sanctions imposed by the NCAA for rules violations reduce first-year student enrollment demand.

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Kristin M. Mills, Anita L. Stewart, Barbara Y. McLellan, Carol J. Verboncoeur, Abby C. King and Byron W. Brown

Health-promotion programs’ success depends on their ability to enroll representative samples of the target population, particularly those who are hard to reach and those who can benefit the most from such programs. This article evaluates enrollment bias in the recruitment process, examines the usefulness of a 2-phased recruitment strategy in enrolling representative proportions of eligible individuals in a physical-activity-promotion program for older adults, and explores predictors of enrollment. Of 1,381 randomly selected Medicare HMO members. 519 were eligible. Of these, 54% attended an informational meeting and 33% enrolled in the program. Relative to the target population, a representative proportion of women was enrolled, but those who enrolled were slightly younger. Of those who were eligible, a representative proportion of sedentary participants was recruited, those who were overweight were overrep-resented, and the oldest old, less educated, ethnic minorities, and precontem-plators of physical activity were underrepresented. Modifiable predictors of enrollment included interest in health, previous health-class attendance, and having had a physician recommend exercise.

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Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods

Although lacking substantive empirical data, the issues of enrollment trends, causes for changes over time, and future directions are important and merit exploration from a variety of research perspectives. One of the few empirical explorations of this topic was completed using a modified case

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Trisha S. Gavin and Anita M. Myers

The article profiles older adults who join Tai Chi and line-dancing beginner classes. Enrollment, attendance, and dropout patterns of 41 classes from 8 recreation and senior centers and 4 Taoist Tai Chi societies were tracked over a full calendar year. Enrollment was highest in the fall. Average attendance over the 8- to 12-week sessions was 72% for Tai Chi and 68% for line dancing; average dropout rates were 23% and 10%, respectively. Entry surveys and exit interviews were completed by 221 and 107 participants, respectively. Older adults who join these community classes tend to be predominantly women, Caucasian, in their mid-60s, relatively healthy, and physically active. Most in Tai Chi joined for fitness and health, whereas many line dancers joined for social reasons. Although the classes were designated as beginner classes, participants varied in level of experience. Continued participation was related to expectations, past experience, and perceived ease of learning the movements.

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Athena Yiamouyiannis and Kay Hawes

The 2009–10 Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA) data were used to analyze and compare student enrollment, sport participation rates/participants, and scholarship allocation at NCAA Division I, II, and III colleges and their subdivisions from a critical perspective through the lens of feminism. The EADA data included 1,062 NCAA collegiate institutions, with 350 Division I colleges, 209 in Division II, and 420 in Division III. Within Division I, the three subdivisions included I-A (FBS), I-AA (FCS), and I-AAA (without football). For Divisions II and III, findings were reported for colleges with and without football. Of the 6 million students attending NCAA colleges, 54% are female students, while only 43% of sport participants are women, which reflects an 11% gap between female enrollment and sport participation. Scholarship allocation appears to favor women when using the OCR comparison of scholarships to participants; however, the opposite conclusion is drawn based upon additional information.

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Brenda Lindstrom, Karen Chad, Nigel Ashworth, Bobbi Dunphy, Elizabeth Harrison, Bruce Reeder, Sandi Schultz, Suzanne Sheppard and Kori Fisher

Background:

Engaging sedentary individuals in physical activity (PA) is challenging and problematic for research requiring large, representative samples. For research projects to be carried out in reasonable timeframes, optimum recruitment methods are needed. Effective recruitment strategies involving PA interventions for older adults have not been determined.

Purpose:

To compare the effectiveness of recruitment strategies for a PA intervention.

Methods:

Two recruitment strategies, print media and personal contact, targeted health-care professionals and the general public.

Results:

The strategies generated 581 inquiries; 163 were randomized into the study. Advertising to the general public via print materials and group presentations accounted for 78% of the total inquiries. Referrals from physicians and health-care professionals resulted in 22% of the inquiries.

Conclusion:

Mass distribution of print material to the general public, enhanced by in-person contact, was the most effective recruitment strategy. These findings suggest various recruitment strategies targeting the general population should be employed.

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Rhema D. Fuller, Brennan K. Berg and Michael Hutchinson

Increasingly, sport managers are attempting to use athletics to positively affect their colleges' and universities' prestige. To highlight this contemporary issue, this case study presents an athletic director, Dwight Stanley, who has to give a recommendation on whether his institution should maintain its membership in the NJCAA or pursue membership in another athletic association, namely the NAIA or NCAA DIII.This case study is designed to capture the tension sport managers face as they encounter complex decisions. Accordingly, each membership option is presented with its advantages and disadvantages, as well as its supporters and detractors.Consequently, students will be required to critically assess a variety of factors to determine the institution's most feasible course of action. Given the popularity of careers within intercollegiate athletics, this case study provides an excellent way for students to engage in considering the complexities of such positions.Additionally, though the case study is presented within the context of intercollegiate athletics, the analytical process required to select a course of action is transferable to other segments of the sport industry.

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Julie DiMatteo, Cynthia Radnitz, Katharine L. Loeb and Jingwen Ni

maintaining free choice. No research to date has evaluated manipulating defaults in college students to increase physical education course enrollment. This study examined the role of choice in a proof-of-concept, simulation study of college students’ well-being course selections to determine if setting an

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Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers and Chad M. Killian

Declining student enrollments among 4-year institutions in the United States have prompted college and university leaders to prioritize recruiting efforts and, in some cases, enlist the help of faculty members in this process ( Brint, Yoshikawa, Rotondi, Viggiano, & Maldonado, 2016 ; Rahman