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Carla L. Dellaserra, Noe C. Crespo, Michael Todd, Jennifer Huberty and Sonia Vega-López

adults. This framework can also help identify mediating factors, such as perceived environmental barriers, social support, and intention to exercise, to explain discrepancies in results among previous studies. 24 – 28 Social cognitive theory proposes that for behavior change, mediation processes occur

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Yorghos Apostolopoulos, Mona M. Shattell, Sevil Sönmez, Robert Strack, Lauren Haldeman and Victoria Jones

Background:

As one of the most underserved segments of the U.S. labor force, truck drivers have been associated with a series of morbid conditions intimately linked to their occupational milieux, their mostly unhealthful nutritional intake and sedentary lifestyles, and their resulting excess weight-gain.

Methods:

This paper reports data from a baseline assessment of 25 trucking work settings located around interstate highways I-40 and I-85 in North Carolina. It examines how the environmental attributes of these work settings influence the physical and recreational activity behaviors of truckers, compares findings with those from other occupational environments, and brings to the fore a new health promotion paradigm for trucking worksites.

Results:

Findings support growing empirical and anecdotal evidence that trucking work settings remain not only active-living deserts, but overall unhealthful places. A scan of physical, social, and information environments within trucking worksites as well as physical environments of surrounding communities reveal only meager opportunities for physical and recreational activity for truckers.

Conclusion:

This paper places the highly underserved population of truckers firmly within the discourse of worksite health promotion, and calls for comprehensive multistakeholder wellness strategies that address a multitude of risk factors linked to the occupational context.

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Tina Louisa Cook, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Lea Maes, Leen Haerens, Evangelia Grammatikaki, Kurt Widhalm, Lydia Kwak, Maria Plada, Luis Alberto Moreno, Yannis Tountas, Antonis Zampelas, Yannis Manios and on hehalf of the HELENA group

Background:

The aim was to examine if psychosocial determinants (attitudes, self-efficacy, social support from a sports partner) and perceived environmental barriers (PEB) of physical activity (PA) mediated the effect of a 3-month Internet-based intervention on PA in European adolescents.

Methods:

A sample of 536 adolescents (51% boys) aged 12–17 years were randomly assigned to intervention or control condition. Questionnaires were used to assess different PA behaviors, psychosocial determinants and PEB at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Mediating effects were assessed with the bootstrapping method.

Results:

PEB regarding neighborhood safety mediated the effect of the intervention on all PA indices. PEB regarding sports facilities availability at neighborhood and PEB regarding sport-related facilities availability at school mediated the effect of the intervention on moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and moderate PA (in leisure time and at school, respectively). Social support from a sports partner suppressed the effect of the intervention on vigorous PA and MVPA. No other factor had a mediation effect.

Conclusions:

All PEB measures appear to mediate PA behaviors of different intensities and in different contexts. Interventions promoting PA in adolescents should also focus on improving the targeted PEB as mediators of engagement in PA to bring the desired effects in actual behaviors.

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Ryan A. Burchfield, Eugene C. Fitzhugh and David R. Bassett

Purpose:

To study the association between weather-related measures and objectively measured trail use across 3 seasons.

Background:

Weather has been reported as a barrier to outdoor physical activity (PA), but previous studies have explained only a small amount of the variance in PA using weather-related measures.

Methods:

The dependent variable of this study was trail use measured as mean hourly trail counts by an infrared trail counter located on a greenway. Each trail count represents 1 person breaking the infrared beam of the trail counter. Two sources of weather-related measures were obtained by a site-specific weather station and a public domain weather source.

Results:

Temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation were significantly correlated with trail counts recorded during daylight hours. More precise hourly weather-related measures explained 42% of the variance in trail counts, regardless of the weather data source with temperature alone explaining 18% of the variance in trail counts. After controlling for all seasonal and weekly factors, every 1°F increase in temperature was associated with an increase of 1.1 trail counts/hr up to 76°F, at which point trail use began to slightly decrease.

Conclusion:

Weather-related factors have a moderate association with trail use along an urban greenway.

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Karen E. Johnson, Martha Y. Kubik and Barbara J. McMorris

Background:

Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students.

Methods:

In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA.

Results:

Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014).

Conclusion:

Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro and Yasuo Shimizu

environmental barriers subscales from a Japanese Exercise Interference Scale ( Shimizu & Ishii, 2011 ). The readiness for PA change questionnaire is underpinned by the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change ( Oka, 2003 ; Prochaska, Redding, & Evers, 2015 ) and seeks to identify an individual’s current

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

activity that met the SCI exercise guideline for improving physical fitness (i.e., 20 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity twice per week). Given the plethora of physical, psychosocial, and environmental barriers to physical activity experienced by people with SCI, it should not be

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Jill Dawson, Melvyn Hillsdon, Irene Boller and Charlie Foster

The authors investigated whether low levels of walking among older adults in the UK were associated with demographic and health characteristics, as well as perceived environmental attributes. Survey data were obtained from self-administered standard questionnaires given to 680 people age 50+ (mean age 64.4 yr) attending nationally led walking schemes. Items concerned with demographic characteristics and perceived barriers to neighborhood walking were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Citing more than 1 environmental barrier to walking, versus not, was associated with significantly reduced levels of (leisure) walking (MET/hr) in the preceding week (Z = –2.35, p = .019), but physical activity levels overall did not differ significantly (Z = –0.71, p = .48). Citing a health-related barrier to walking significantly adversely affected overall physical activity levels (Z = –2.72, p = .006). The authors concluded that, among older people who favor walking, health problems might more seriously affect overall physical activity levels than perceived environmental barriers.

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Nick Garrett, Philip J. Schluter and Grant Schofield

Background:

A minority of adults in developed countries engage in sufficient physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits. This study aims to identify modifiable perceived resources and barriers to PA among New Zealand adults.

Methods:

Secondary analysis of a 2003 nationally representative cross-sectional mail survey, stratified by region, age, and ethnicity, and analyzed utilizing ordinal logistic regression.

Results:

Overall, n = 8038 adults responded to the survey, of whom 49% met updated guidelines for sufficient PA. Perceived accessibility of local resources was associated with PA; however, for some resources there was more awareness among individuals whose predominant activity was not commonly associated with that resource (eg, health clubs and walkers). Perceived local environmental barriers demonstrated negative (steep hills, crime, dogs) and positive (unmaintained footpaths) associations. The absence of perceived environmental barriers was strongly associated with increased activity, suggesting the number of barriers may be a critical factor.

Conclusion:

Complex relationships between perceptions of local environments and activity patterns among adults were found. Although complex, these results demonstrate positive associations between awareness of resources and perceived lack of barriers with being sufficiently physically active for health. Therefore, investments in provision and/or promotion of local resources have the potential to enable active healthy communities.

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Wanzhu Tu, Timothy E. Stump, Teresa M. Damush and Daniel O. Clark

This research investigated the effects of health and environmental factors on the dropout and intermittent nonattendance of an exercise program designed specifically for older, female, primary-care patients living in the inner city. Class-attendance records (n = 21,538) from a cohort 110 women were analyzed. Women who dropped out early had poorer perceived health and were more likely to report pain as an exercise barrier at baseline. Those who lived in a census tract where a larger percentage of workers walk to work were less likely to drop out early. Intermittent nonattendance was associated with adverse weather conditions including heat index above 90 ºF, wind-chill index below 20 ºF, overcast sky, and snow. Better attendance was associated with greater atmospheric pressure, as well as lower number of sunlight hours per day. This research highlights the need to better understand environmental barriers when promoting physical activities in older women.