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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Nicholas M. Watanabe

businesses and citizens, to reduce their environmental impacts and contributions to greenhouse gases. Interestingly and encouragingly, 900 corporations have organized to urge the G20 heads of state to honor their commitment to the Paris Climate Agreement ( Ceres, 2019 ). This message from corporate leaders

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Sven Schneider, Adriana D’Agostino, Simone Weyers, Katharina Diehl and Johannes Gruber

Background:

The “deprivation amplification” hypothesis states that individuals who are already socially disadvantaged experience a further contextual disadvantage regarding their access to health relevant facilities. This hypothesis is investigated for the first time for Germany, led by the question as to whether deprived neighborhoods experience worse access to physical activity facilities than affluent ones. We differentiate between facilities for children and adolescents vs. for adults, and between free vs. fee-based facilities.

Methods:

We identified all physical activity facilities by traversing each neighborhood by foot or bicycle in the framework of a systematic audit. Number, location, and type of facilities were recorded and visualized. The investigation area encompassed 18 social areas in a major German city with 92,000 inhabitants and an area of 12.0 km2.

Results:

A lower socioeconomic area status was related to a higher availability of physical activity facilities for children and adolescents (7.11/1000 minors in deprived social areas versus 4.46/1000 minors in affluent social areas; P < .05). For adults, the pattern was similar but not significant (P ≥ .05). These results were also shown in analyses in which only free facilities were taken into consideration.

Conclusions:

Our study cannot support the “deprivation amplification” hypothesis regarding the availability of physical activity facilities.

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Christoph Buck, Anca Bolbos and Sven Schneider

Background: Playgrounds are a central resource when it comes to physical activity among minors. This study assesses the association between area deprivation and the quality of playgrounds. Methods: All playgrounds in the city of Mannheim, Germany (145 km2, 311,000 inhabitants) were visited between July 2016 and January 2017 as part of a systematic audit. Each playground’s amenities, attractiveness, cleanliness, and safety were operationalized using well-established, validated instruments. Global and geographically weighted regression models were fitted to investigate the association of the amenities, attractively, cleanliness, and safety of playgrounds with sociodemographic indicators on the social area level. Results: A total of 271 playgrounds were identified. Overall, population density showed the strongest association with all quality variables in the global models, followed by the central official poverty indicator. Significant spatial variation in parameter estimates was found for most of the deprivation indicators with regard to attractiveness, cleanliness, and safety of playgrounds indicating locally negative associations between area-level deprivation and quality. Conclusion: Our findings illustrate the importance of a qualitative approach by analyzing physical activity resources. Concerning the quality of playgrounds, the data from this study support the deprivation amplification hypothesis, meaning that children who are already socially disadvantaged might experience a further contextual disadvantage.

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Tamara Vehige Calise, Samuel C. Dumith, William DeJong and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

The ability to design or reconfigure communities to be more supportive of physical activity has broad public health implications. Assessing the context and locations of specific behaviors will lead to a better understanding of how neighborhood attributes influence overall physical activity.

Methods:

A cross-sectional survey was used to assess physical activity before and after residents moved to Mueller, a New Urbanist-inspired community in Austin, Texas. Context-specific physical activity and the locations where these activities took place were examined.

Results:

Overall, residents reported that they increased their physical activity by 66.4 minutes (95% CI: 32.8–100.1) per week after moving to Mueller. For recreational walking, residents reported an average of 159.8 minutes inside Mueller after moving, an increase from 91.7 minutes before their move (P < .001). Correspondingly, residents walked 18.6 fewer minutes per week outside Mueller (P < .001). For transport-related walking, the mean number of minutes spent walking outside Mueller remained constant, but the time spent walking inside the neighborhood decreased an average of 10.8 minutes per week after moving (P = .02).

Conclusions:

The most notable increase was seen in walking for recreation inside the neighborhood. Results of this natural experiment strongly suggest the environmental impact on physical activity and underscore the importance of investigating the context and locations where different types of physical activity occur.

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Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Yu-Fai Leung and Myron F. Floyd

Background:

To address increasing prevalence of obesity and associated chronic disease, recent national initiatives have called upon federal agencies to promote healthy lifestyles and provide opportunities for physical activity. In response, the U.S. National Park Service has developed strategies promoting health through physical activity in addition to its well-established biodiversity and landscape conservation mission. Incorporating physical activity measures with routine environmental monitoring would help identify areas where parks can promote active pursuits with minimal environmental impact. This study provides one example of how protocols developed for visitor and environmental monitoring can generate data to evaluate physical activity.

Methods:

Researchers implemented an observational study in high-use meadows of Yosemite National Park during the summer of 2011. Variables measured include the spatial location of visitors and activity type. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were assigned to activity categories and analyzed for average energy expenditure.

Results:

Mean METs values indicated sedentary to light physical activity across the meadows, with greater means in areas with boardwalks or paved pathways.

Conclusions:

Data leveraged in this study provide park managers an example of adapting existing monitoring programs to incorporate indicators relevant to physical activity evaluation and how physical activity may impact resource conditions in national parks.

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Michelle Murphy

. Body culture takes place within these artificialized human landscapes that reflect public values and aspirations. 2 While the book offers an intricate cultural history of skiing in the Alps, readers are left wondering more about the environmental impact skiing had on the European mountain landscape

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Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough

This past April 22 (Earth Day), Smallville University (SU) President Williams expanded the campus’ environmental sustainability commitment by mandating that all departments on campus must have a strategic plan in place to address their respective environmental impacts by 2020 to establish specific

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison

). Regardless, given the present state of the planet and the dependency of sport on natural resources, combined with the potential for sport to curtail the industry’s environmental impact and inspire proenvironmental behavior ( Kellison & McCullough, 2018 ), it is imperative that this subdiscipline be organized

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Kristi Sweeney

delve into specific contexts of golf management and highlight the contributions of various organizations involved in the golf industry. Specifically, this part covers golf club management and hospitality (Chapter 4); sustainability and the environmental impact of golf (Chapter 5); golf tourism and the

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jay johnson and Adam Ehsan Ali

” ( Constellation, NHL Reduce Environmental Impact, 2015 ). Its very invitation to present on the GSA-organized panel during the historic meeting of nations to discuss climate change is indicative of the magnitude to which the NHL has leveraged its green image within the sport world and beyond. As such, we are