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Wendell C. Taylor, Walker S. Carlos Poston, Lovell Jones and M. Katherine Kraft

Background:

The term “environmental justice” refers to efforts to address the disproportionate exposure to and burden of harmful environmental conditions experienced by low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations.

Methods:

Based on computer and manual searches, this paper presents a review of articles in the published literature that discuss disparities in physical activity, dietary habits, and obesity among different populations.

Results:

This paper provides evidence that economically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority populations have substantial environmental challenges to overcome to become physically active, to acquire healthy dietary habits, and to maintain a healthy weight. For example, residents living in poorer areas have more environmental barriers to overcome to be physically active.

Conclusions:

We propose a research agenda to specifically address environmental justice with regard to improving physical activity, dietary habits, and weight patterns.

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Wendell C. Taylor, Myron F. Floyd, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover and Joseph Brooks

Background:

Despite the importance of physical activity (PA) for good health, not all populations have equal access to PA facilities and resources. This disparity is an environmental justice (EJ) issue because of the negative impact on the health of low-income and racial/ethnic minorities.

Methods:

This paper reviews the first wave of the EJ movement, presents the second wave of the EJ movement, discusses the implications of adopting principles from the EJ movement to focus on research in parks and recreation services (PRS), and recommends future research directions.

Results:

Studies on EJ have documented the disproportionate burden of environmental challenges experienced by low-income and racial/ethnic minorities. With regard to PA, these communities face inadequate access to, quality of, financing for, and public involvement in recreation opportunities.

Conclusions:

EJ is a useful framework to facilitate collaborative research between public health and PRS to study racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in PA.

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Andrew T. Kaczynski, Sonja A. Wilhelm Stanis, Tanis J. Hastmann and Gina M. Besenyi

Background:

Parks are important settings for physical activity (PA), but few studies have documented the actual behaviors of park users. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and joint effects of various park user demographic characteristics on observed PA intensity levels.

Methods:

Four parks were observed using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities. Observers recorded the age group, gender, race, and intensity level of all park users in 83 activity areas over two weekends at each park. Logistic regression examined whether male/White, female/White, and male/non-White users were more likely than female/non-White users to be observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) rather than sedentary activity across 4 age groups.

Results:

In total, 8612 users were observed during the study. In the child age group, male/White users were significantly more likely to be observed in MVPA than female/non-White users. For teens, female/White and male/White users were less likely to engage in MVPA. For both adults and seniors, female/White and male/White users were more likely to be observed in MVPA.

Conclusion:

Observations revealed significant differences in intensity levels across gender, age, and race groups. Future interventions should emphasize park design that promotes increased MVPA among diverse groups.

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Christoph Buck, Anca Bolbos and Sven Schneider

Background: Playgrounds are a central resource when it comes to physical activity among minors. This study assesses the association between area deprivation and the quality of playgrounds. Methods: All playgrounds in the city of Mannheim, Germany (145 km2, 311,000 inhabitants) were visited between July 2016 and January 2017 as part of a systematic audit. Each playground’s amenities, attractiveness, cleanliness, and safety were operationalized using well-established, validated instruments. Global and geographically weighted regression models were fitted to investigate the association of the amenities, attractively, cleanliness, and safety of playgrounds with sociodemographic indicators on the social area level. Results: A total of 271 playgrounds were identified. Overall, population density showed the strongest association with all quality variables in the global models, followed by the central official poverty indicator. Significant spatial variation in parameter estimates was found for most of the deprivation indicators with regard to attractiveness, cleanliness, and safety of playgrounds indicating locally negative associations between area-level deprivation and quality. Conclusion: Our findings illustrate the importance of a qualitative approach by analyzing physical activity resources. Concerning the quality of playgrounds, the data from this study support the deprivation amplification hypothesis, meaning that children who are already socially disadvantaged might experience a further contextual disadvantage.

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Kyle Bunds and Jonathan Casper

understanding the important connection of, “sports as sites where economies and industries intersect with biophysical worlds” (p. 105). The articles in their special issue do a laudable job of connecting environmental justice and sport sociology and calling upon sport sociologists to take an active role on this

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison

that result from those detrimental effects. Environmental Justice Environmental justice refers to the social movement surrounding such terms as environmental racism (e.g.,  Chavis & Lee, 1987 ) and environmental inequality ( Sze & London, 2008 ). This movement represents the intersection of economic

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jay johnson and Adam Ehsan Ali

the tenets of EM and its critiques to analyze three common periphery adjustments that came to characterize the strategies and tactics of the NHL SR in responding to environmental concerns. These included (1) a harmonizing of business solutions and environmental justice, (2) technological innovation

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Nicholas M. Watanabe

associated with attending an event that may go unaccounted for but that have an adverse effect on the surrounding community (i.e., environment). For instance, environmental justice issues can be overlooked or deemphasized by sport organizations and venues that do not broaden the scope of their EIAs (e

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Claudia O. Alberico, J. Aaron Hipp and Rodrigo S. Reis

. Vaughan KB , Kaczynski AT , Stanis SAW , Besenyi GM , Bergstrom R , Heinrich KM . Exploring the distribution of park availability, features, and quality across Kansas City, Missouri by income and race/ethnicity: an environmental justice investigation . Ann Behav Med . 2013 ; 45 ( suppl

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Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee

distribution of park availability, features, and quality across Kansas City, Missouri by income and race/ethnicity: an environmental justice investigation . Ann Behav Med . 2013 ; 45 : 28 – 38 . doi:10.1007/s12160-012-9425-y 10.1007/s12160-012-9425-y 12. Ling J , Robbins LB , Hines-Martin V