remained a popular line of inquiry within the sport management field, a review by Welty Peachey, Damon, Zhou, and Burton ( 2015 ) found that SL remains an “avenue of future exploration” (p. 582). In particular, there is a noticeable gap related to the environmental characteristics that influence SL
Gareth J. Jones, Christine E. Wegner, Kyle S. Bunds, Michael B. Edwards, and Jason N. Bocarro
Eduarda Cristina da Costa Silva, Arthur Oliveira Barbosa, Juliana Maria da Penha Freire Silva, and José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
determinants of PA decline in adolescents. Possible factors, such as self-efficacy (SE) and environmental characteristics (EC), could be determinants of the decline in PA. These are proposed in theories and models (eg, the sociocognitive theory and socioecological model) 5 , 6 created to understand the
Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng, and Rute Santos
variation in the environmental characteristics of ECEC centers. 16 – 18 Most of the environmental characteristics examined were of the physical environments of the ECEC centers, 18 , 19 such as the availability of play equipment; 20 – 26 the presence of sedentary items (eg, television and computer); 20
Logan T. Markwell, Andrew J. Strick, and Jared M. Porter
order to consistently accomplish the action goal (i.e., purpose of the movement) of a closed skill, the coordinated movement pattern must be refined in a process known as fixation. Fixation is dependent on the performer as well as the environmental characteristics in which the closed skill takes place
Amy M. Gibson, Gary W. Cohen, Kelly K. Boyce, Megan N. Houston, and Cailee E. Welch Bacon
Clinical Question: What personal and environmental characteristics are associated with burnout in athletic trainers, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Athletic Training Burnout Inventory (ATBI)? Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence suggesting that personal and environmental factors are associated with burnout in athletic trainers, as measured by the MBI and ATBI. While it is difficult to identify a single contributing factor that increases the athletic trainer’s perception of burnout, athletic trainers should be aware of the characteristics associated with the condition and take appropriate action to reduce the risk of burnout.
Jorge Mota, Marta Almeida, Rute Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro, and Maria Paula Santos
Specific behavior context such as type of PA (organized vs. nonorganized) might be associated with different environmental correlates. The main goal of this cross-sectional survey was to examine perceived environmental associations with type of adolescents’ physical activity (PA) choices (organized and nonorganized). A sample of this study comprised 425 girls with mean age of 14.5 years-old. Environmental variables and PA were assessed by questionnaire, which allowed to define the type (organized or nonorganized) of PA. No associations were found between environmental perceptions and the participation in organized activities. However, different dimensions of environmental variables such as accessibilities to facilities (p ≤ .05) aesthetics (p ≤ .05) and social environment (p ≤ .05) were associated to girls’ PA participation in nonorganized activities (NOPA). Our findings suggested that some environmental characteristics might play an important role in girls’ NOPA participation.
Katherine A. Skala, Andrew E. Springer, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher, and Steven H. Kelder
Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE.
Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation.
Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001).
Findings suggest that children’s activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children’s MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.
Ariane L. Bedimo-Rung, Jeanette Gustat, Bradley J. Tompkins, Janet Rice, and Jessica Thomson
The study’s purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity.
A direct observation instrument of 181 items was developed based on a conceptual model consisting of the following domains: features, condition, access, esthetics, and safety. Fifteen pairs of observers were trained and sent to two parks simultaneously to assess two Target Areas each.
Overall domain reliability was 86.9%, and overall geographic area reliability was 87.5%. Overall domain validity was 78.7% and overall geographic area validity was 81.5%.
Inter-rater reliability and validity were generally good, although validity was slightly lower than reliability. Objective items showed the highest reliability and validity. Items that are time-sensitive may need to be measured on multiple occasions, while items asking for subjective responses may require more supervised practice.
Sylvia Titze, Billie Giles-Corti, Matthew W. Knuiman, Terri J. Pikora, Anna Timperio, Fiona C. Bull, and Kimberly van Niel
This study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood environmental factors and cycling for transport and for recreation among adults living in Perth, Western Australia.
Baseline cross-sectional data from 1813 participants (40.5% male; age range 18 to 78 years) in the RESIDential Environment (RESIDE) project were analyzed. The questionnaire included information on cycling behavior and on cycling-specific individual, social environmental, and neighborhood environmental attributes. Cycling for transport and recreation were dichotomized as whether or not individuals cycled in a usual week.
Among the individual factors, positive attitudes toward cycling and perceived behavioral control increased the odds of cycling for transport and for recreation. Among the neighborhood environmental attributes, leafy and attractive neighborhoods, access to bicycle/walking paths, the presence of traffic slowing devices and having many 4-way street intersections were positively associated with cycling for transport. Many alternative routes in the local area increased the odds of cycling for recreation.
Effective strategies for increasing cycling (particularly cycling for transport) may include incorporating supportive environments such as creating leafy and attractive neighborhood surroundings, low traffic speed, and increased street connectivity, in addition to campaigns aimed at strengthening positive attitudes and confidence to cycle.
Mika R. Moran, Perla Werner, Israel Doron, Neta HaGani, Yael Benvenisti, Abby C. King, Sandra J. Winter, Jylana L. Sheats, Randi Garber, Hadas Motro, and Shlomit Ergon
, Brownson, & d’Orsi, 2016 ; Gómez et al., 2010 ; Piro, Nœss, & Claussen, 2006 ), and aesthetics ( Cerin et al., 2014 ; Hoehner, Ramirez, Elliott, Handy, & Brownson, 2005 ). The associations between objective and perceived environmental characteristics have been well researched, mostly by using