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Zachary Y. Kerr, Andrew E. Lincoln, Shane V. Caswell, David A. Klossner, Nina Walker and Thomas P. Dompier

injury surveillance research on both TL and NTL NCAA women’s lacrosse injuries is important for appropriate management and treatment by the team medical staff and may have important implications for injury prevention programs. Methods Design The current study utilized a descriptive epidemiology design

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Russell R. Pate, Barbara J. Long and Greg Heath

This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Large population-based studies were reviewed, along with smaller studies using objective monitoring of physical activity. Estimates showed that adolescents engage in physical activity of any intensity for a mean of one hour per day. Approximately two thirds of males and one quarter of females participate in moderate to vigorous activity for 20 min 3 or more days per week. Activity levels decline with increasing age across adolescence, and this decrease is more marked in females than in males. Comparison of these data to physical activity guidelines for adolescents suggests the vast majority are meeting the guideline of accumulating physical activity. However, a substantial number of males, and the majority of females, are not meeting the guideline for moderate to vigorous physical activity.

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Susan W. Yeargin, Yuri Hosokawa, Rebecca M. Hirschhorn, Lauren A. Pierpoint and Douglas J. Casa

research estimating approximately 4% of emergency transports are for EHI. 11 Because previous research on the epidemiology of EHI in high school sports either considered older study periods 4 , 5 or American football only, 12 updated data are needed to comprehensively reevaluate the EHI incidence among

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Jessica R. Fairbairn and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

compet*) • O utcome(s): (prevalence OR epidemiology OR rate OR incidence) AND (injury OR pain OR chronic OR dysfunct* OR impair* OR disabil*) AND (shoulder OR upper extremity OR upper limb OR glenohumeral) Sources of Evidence Searched • The Cochrane Library • PubMed • CINAHL • SPORTDiscus • Additional

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Kevin M. Cross, Kelly K. Gurka, Susan Saliba, Mark Conaway and Jay Hertel

:10.1093/eurpub/ckm050 10.1093/eurpub/ckm050 17569703 6. Yard EE , Schroeder MJ , Fields SK , Collins CL , Comstock RD . The epidemiology of United States high school soccer injuries, 2005–2007 . Am J Sports Med . 2008 ; 36 ( 10 ): 1930 – 1937 . PubMed ID: 18628486 doi:10

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Brigid M. Lynch, Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Yi Yang, Dallas R. English, Ding Ding, Paul A. Gardiner and Terry Boyle

applied these methods. The potential outcomes approach stems from counterfactual reasoning, an epistemological approach to understanding causality. Pearl 20 (whose profound contribution to epidemiology has been described as the “marriage of the counterfactual and probabilistic approaches to causation

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Sarah Fields and R. Dawn Comstock

Background:

Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport–related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility.

Methods:

A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury.

Results:

Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared with normal weight handlers (OR = 5.5, P < .001). Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog’s age (P < .05). Handlers more commonly reported positive physical, emotional, and social motivations for participation than competitive.

Conclusions:

Despite many health benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

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Brigid M. Lynch, Andrea Ramirez Varela and Terry Boyle

selection bias on the results of observational studies. Physical activity epidemiology has not adopted these methodological advances as quickly as other disciplines. To address this, the Epidemiology Council of the International Society for Physical Activity and Health (ISPAH) was recently launched. The aim

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Paddy C. Dempsey, Chuck E. Matthews, S. Ghazaleh Dashti, Aiden R. Doherty, Audrey Bergouignan, Eline H. van Roekel, David W. Dunstan, Nicholas J. Wareham, Thomas E. Yates, Katrien Wijndaele and Brigid M. Lynch

consequences and mechanistic pathways (eg, see “Genetic Epidemiology” section). These algorithms could also be potentially used to classify patient data from clinical trials, but efforts are still required to enhance wider accessibility, scalability at low cost, and greater ease of use for all nonprogrammers

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, Meghan M. Brashear, Peter T. Katzmarzyk and William D. Johnson

Background:

Analysis of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer data provides the descriptive epidemiology of peak 30-minute cadence (defined as the average steps/min recorded for the 30 highest, but not necessarily consecutive, minutes in a day) and peak 1-minute cadence (defined as the steps/min recorded for the highest single minute in a day) by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI).

Methods:

Minute-by-minute step data were rank ordered each day to identify the peak 30-minute and 1-minute cadences for 3522 adults (20+ years of age) with complete sex, age, and BMI data and at least 1 valid day (ie, 10/24 hours of accelerometer wear) of accelerometer data. Peak values were averaged across days within participants by sex, age, and BMI-defined categories.

Results:

U.S. adults average a peak 30-minute cadence of 71.1 (men: 73.7, women: 69.6, P < .0001) steps/min and a peak 1-minute cadence of 100.7 (men: 100.9, women: 100.5, P = .54) steps/min. Both peak cadence indicators displayed significant and consistent declines with age and increasing levels of obesity.

Conclusions:

Peak cadence indicators capture the highest intensity execution of naturally occurring ambulatory activity. Future examination of their relationship with health parameters using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention designs is warranted.