Davis and Sumara (2003) argue that differences between commonsense assumptions about learning and those upon which constructivism rests present a significant challenge for the fostering of constructivist approaches to teaching in schools. Indeed, as Rink (2001) suggests, initiating any change process for teaching method needs to involve some understanding of the theories supporting it. Although there has been considerable discussion about constructivism in the physical education literature over the past decade, there has been less attention paid to the assumptions about learning and knowledge that underpin it. This article makes a contribution toward redressing this oversight in the literature by examining the epistemology and assumptions about learning that constructivist theories of learning rest upon. Drawing on the work of Davis and Sumara (2003), I suggest that the term “complex” learning theories may offer a more useful description of the sometimes confusing range of constructivist approaches. I provide examples of, and suggestions for, the application of constructivism in practice and within which the body forms a prominent theme.
the methods, paradigms, epistemologies, and approaches that we were taught. If we were trained to do phenomenology, switching to a different research design is daunting given the publish-or-perish culture of academia and the lack of time we have to truly delve into, learn, and master new approaches
Jennifer L. Walton-Fisette and Theresa A. Walton-Fisette
.g., from personal experience, engagement with patients, medical literature)? and (c) How do they use this information to advise and treat their patients? Literature Review In Making Medical Knowledge , Miriam Solomon ( 2015 ) focused on the epistemology of medical knowledge. In other words, what counts as
Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason
al., 2015 ). Although not specifically addressing leadership, a number of sport management scholars ( Amis & Silk, 2005 ; Girginov, 2010 ; Pope & Nauright, 2009 ) have also identified the dominance of Western epistemology in the field in general and called for more culturally informed research. To further
This paper describes an epistemology integrating feminist standpoint, queer theory, and feminist cultural studies. Feminist standpoint theory assumes that people develop different perspectives based on their position in society, and women have a distinct standpoint because of the power differential between females and males in our society. Queer theory places sexuality as a central focus, acknowledges the common history of devaluation of non heterosexual individuals, and challenges the current power structure marginalizing nonheterosexuals. Feminist cultural studies examines the role of gender within our cultural interactions and the reproduction of gender inequality in society. I then provide examples illustrating how these perspectives come together and guide my research investigating the experiences of lesbians in sport and women’s bodily experiences.
Pamela C. Allison, Becky W. Pissanos, Adrian P. Turner, and Denise R. Law
The constructivist theoretical tenet, that individuals create meaning based on the interaction of their previous knowledge and beliefs with currently experienced phenomena, served as the orientating framework for inquiry into a physical education teacher education program that emphasizes development of skillful movers as the primary goal of physical education. Epistemological stances on movement skillfullness held by 25 beginning preservice teachers were explored. Data were collected in a directed reflective format. Inductive data analysis revealed that these preservice teachers see above average ability, task commitment, and creativity as characteristic of being skillful. Their constructs of skillfulness were developed in contexts that include the human body in action, intermesh of movements, whole pattern of performance, presence of movement, the sociocultural event, and skillfulness as a backdrop for teaching. These findings informed the dialectic between teacher education faculty and students by creating avenues for shared understandings of the epistemological bases of the program.
Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli
There is a lack of conceptual and theoretical clarity among clinicians and researchers regarding the control of motor actions based on the use of the term “motor control.” It is important to differentiate control processes from observations of motor output to improve communication and to make progress in understanding motor disorders and their remediation. This article clarifies terminology related to theoretical concepts underlying the control of motor actions, emphasizing how the term “motor control” is applied in neurorehabilitation. Two major opposing theoretical frameworks are described (i.e., direct and indirect), and their strengths and pitfalls are discussed. Then, based on the proposition that sensorimotor rehabilitation should be predicated on one comprehensive theory instead of an eclectic mix of theories and models, several solutions are offered about how to address controversies in motor learning, optimality, and adaptability of movement.
Joshua I. Newman
This article seeks to unsettle the taken-for-granted epistemological and ontological foundations upon which many curricular and research-based activities in contemporary sport management are grounded. With an emphasis on that academic field’s development in the United States in particular, the author problematizes the underlying assumptions that guide many of sport management’s concomitant scientific and industrial projects. The article concludes with a brief discussion on how we might reenvisage both the study and praxis of sport management in ways that are not just economically generative, but in ways that might also bring about cultural and social transformation.
Joshua D. Vadeboncoeur, Trevor Bopp, and John N. Singer
, it may also mean taking a closer look at how our biases, epistemologies, identities, and values are shaped by whiteness and, in turn, serve to affect our research practice. To move toward a more meaningful and nuanced point of consciousness in our work, it is important to extend the dialogue on
Joshua I. Newman
battlefields—namely, in the regions of epistemology and ontology. For Latour, these wars as waged in the academy present a double problem: on the one hand, matters of fact —climate change, warmer gulf waters leading to stronger and more frequent hurricanes, proliferating sport-induced head trauma leading to