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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

positive stride forward, mental health research and practical support within sporting domains where there are unique sporting factors associated with increased risk (i.e., physical harm and/or life threatening/changing injuries) continues to be lacking ( Rice et al., 2018 ). Equestrian sport is referred

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Carl G. Mattacola, Carolina Quintana, Jed Crots, Kimberly I. Tumlin and Stephanie Bonin

a horse to wear a properly secured, certified helmet. 7 However, most tracks fall under state or track-specific rules with less stringent helmet requirements that allow jockeys to wear noncertified helmets at those facilities. Equestrian helmets have 3 primary components: a rigid outer shell, an

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

(relating to dressage element) completed in a randomized order. The study was conducted in the equestrian arena commonly used by each rider, with the rider using their own horse and dressage saddle. Familiarization trials were completed to ensure that the choreographed activity profile for each element was

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

the 3 described postures: standing position (SP), maximum flexion of the trunk with “sit and reach” test (SRT), and relaxed or slump sitting position (SSP). Previous literature provides data about the importance of posture equestrians must adopt while riding 14 – 16 because an incorrect position is

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Marsha L. Blakeslee and Dennis M. Goff

The present study examined the effectiveness of a mental skills training (MST) package employing relaxation, imagery, goal setting, and self-talk (strategies for improving performance and perceptions through cognitive-somatic techniques) on equestrian performance. A stratified random sample of 17 competitive collegiate horseback riders participated in this study: 8 received MST and 9 were controls. Riders’ goal orientation was also assessed and used to determine if there might be a relationship with performance change over time. Assessment of participants via performance in 2 horse shows revealed no interaction effect for group by time in either flat or show-jumping performance, but there was a significant main effect of time for performance improvement. Riders demonstrated a dominant mastery-approach goal orientation as hypothesized, but no significant correlations with performance change emerged. Findings do not rule out MST as a possible performance enhancing technique, but more research is needed to assess nomothetic MST package effects.

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Robert F. Dyer and Rolando P. Irizarry

Safety is a growing concern in all sports, with the equestrian sector statistically more dangerous than most. Point Two USA hopes to make horse riding and competition a safer sport for all ages, riding levels, and disciplines with its innovative air vests, which use an inflatable air bag similar to those required in modern automobiles. Air vests are used to reduce the severity and frequency of injuries; however, no technology or equipment can eliminate all injuries associated with horse riding. After a strong entry in the United Kingdom in 2009, Point Two needs to formulate a comprehensive marketing plan for the larger U.S. market to expand its customer base to anyone getting on a horse who desires a safer ride. Its U.S. subsidiary has been primarily marketing with the same approaches used in the United Kingdom, heavily targeting English saddle riders in specific riding disciplines, such as eventing and dressage, both amateur and professional. The challenge for Point Two is how it can make headway in more mainstream riding markets, including recreation or pleasure riders, novice riders, and those who ride using Western saddles, which is very popular in the United States.

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Mark R. Beauchamp and Lauren C. Whinton

One-day equestrian eventing comprises three disciplines: dressage, show-jumping, and cross-country. Participants in the present study were 187 riders (38 M, 149 F) competing in one of two intermediate-level 1-day competitions. Participants’ perceptions of their own (self-efficacy) and their horses’ abilities (other-efficacy) were assessed 30 minutes prior to each stage of competition and examined in relation to subsequent riding performance. For dressage, self efficacy (β = –.20, p < .05) and other-efficacy (β = –.26, p < .01) were each able to explain unique variance in dressage performance (adj. R 2 = .16). However, for both show-jumping and cross-country disciplines, neither form of efficacy was associated with the corresponding measure of riding performance. The results for show-jumping and cross-country may be explained by the lack of variability and heavily skewed nature of the performance data in these two contexts. Consistent with previous research, the results for dressage suggest that self-efficacy may be an important predictor of performance in sport. However, in line with theorizing by Lent and Lopez (2002), the results suggest that other-efficacy may also be an important predictor of behavioral enactment within performing dyads.

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Gershon Tenenbaum, Michael Lloyd, Grace Pretty and Yuri L. Hanin

A study was carried out to examine the ability of equestrians to accurately report precompetition emotions and thoughts across varying time delays (3,7, and 14 days) after competition. Forty male and female dressage riders were randomly divided into two equal groups: participants who watched their videotaped precompetition routine before responding to the items, and participants who visualized the precompetition routine without any external aid. Each rider completed several questionnaires which measured emotions, items related to horses, and an open-ended question on thoughts and emotions at that moment. After a delay of 3,7, and 14 days, the riders were asked to respond to the same questions after imagining themselves preparing for the competition. Repeated-measures MANOVA indicate that though some decrease in emotional intensity was noted for some emotions in the retrospective report, the stability of reporting precompetition emotions was very high in all delay periods. The horse related items were reported particularly accurately. Watching the videotape did not improve the accuracy of the report. Content analysis, however, indicated that when measurement consisted of free report, many emotions and thoughts were added or omitted in the delayed modes. Ericsson and Simon’s (1980, 1984) verbal reports and protocol analysis conceptualization is used to elaborate upon these results.

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Amy Kaufmann

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Michelle Gilbert

This paper explores how young girls develop trust in their equine partners for the purposes of competitive equestrian sport. I argue that interspecies trust manifests through interactional trust and system trust. Interactional trust, as reflected in the horse-human relationship, is built through joint action and results in symbolic interaction. System trust is made possible through the equine community; it develops through communication in an effort to reduce complexity and uncertainty in society. To encourage and sustain youth participation in competitive equestrian sports both interactional trust and system trust are necessary.