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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French, and Kevin A. Becker

in individuals with PD, including noncontact boxing ( Combs et al., 2011 ) and Tai Chi ( Hackney & Earhart, 2008 ), which can elicit improvements in balance and posture in this population. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) are other modalities of alternative exercise that have gained

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Carl G. Mattacola, Carolina Quintana, Jed Crots, Kimberly I. Tumlin, and Stephanie Bonin

Context: During thoroughbred races, jockeys are placed in potentially injurious situations, often with inadequate safety equipment. Jockeys frequently sustain head injuries; therefore, it is important that they wear appropriately certified helmets. Objective: The goals of this study are (1) to perform impact attenuation testing according to ASTM F1163-15 on a sample of equestrian helmets commonly used by jockeys in the United States and (2) to quantify headform acceleration and residual crush after repeat impacts at the same location. Participants and Design: Seven helmet models underwent impact attenuation testing according to ASTM F1163-15. A second sample of each helmet model underwent repeat impacts at the crown location for a total of 4 impacts. Setting : Laboratory. Intervention : Each helmet was impacted against a flat and equestrian hazard anvil. Main Outcome Measures: Headform acceleration was recorded during all impact and computed tomography scans were performed preimpact and after impacts 1 and 4 on the crown to quantify liner thickness. Results: Four helmets had 1 impact that exceeded the limit of 300g. During the repeated crown impacts, acceleration remained below 300g for the first and second impacts for all helmets, while only one helmet remained below 300g for all impacts. Foam liner thickness was reduced between 5% and 39% after the first crown impact and between 33% and 70% after the fourth crown impact. Conclusions: All riders should wear a certified helmet and replace it after sustaining a head impact. Following an impact, expanded polystyrene liners compress, and their ability to attenuate head acceleration during subsequent impacts to the same location is reduced. Replacing an impacted helmet may reduce a rider’s head injury risk.

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Anne M.H. Severyn, Nathan R. Luzum, Kristine L. Vernon, Marieke Van Puymbroeck, and John D. DesJardins

were gentle natured and had prior experience in a therapeutic riding setting. Participants signed an informed consent and lessons were held at the university’s equine center in their outdoor arena (100 × 200 ft). A 30-ft walkway was created with GoPro (San Mateo, CA) cameras (300 Hz) set up 30 ft

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Michelle Gilbert

This paper explores how young girls develop trust in their equine partners for the purposes of competitive equestrian sport. I argue that interspecies trust manifests through interactional trust and system trust. Interactional trust, as reflected in the horse-human relationship, is built through joint action and results in symbolic interaction. System trust is made possible through the equine community; it develops through communication in an effort to reduce complexity and uncertainty in society. To encourage and sustain youth participation in competitive equestrian sports both interactional trust and system trust are necessary.

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Christopher D. Black and Patrick J. O’Connor

Ginger has known hypoalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of an oral dose of ginger on quadriceps muscle pain, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and recovery of oxygen consumption were examined during and after moderateintensity cycling exercise. Twenty-five college-age participants ingested a 2-g dose of ginger or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design and 30 min later completed 30 min of cycling at 60% of VO2peak. Quadriceps muscle pain, RPE, work rate, heart rate (HR), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded every 5 min during exercise, and HR and VO2 were recorded for 20 min after exercise. Compared with placebo, ginger had no clinically meaningful or statistically significant effect on perceptions of muscle pain, RPE, work rate, HR, or VO2 during exercise. Recovery of VO2 and HR after the 30-min exercise bout followed a similar time course in the ginger and placebo conditions. The results were consistent with related findings showing that ingesting a large dose of aspirin does not acutely alter quadriceps muscle pain during cycling, and this suggests that prostaglandins do not play a large role in this type of exercise-induced skeletal-muscle pain. Ginger consumption has also been shown to improve VO2 recovery in an equine exercise model, but these results show that this is not the case in humans.

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Chrysostomos Giannoulakis

By Jonathan G. Merritt. Published in November 2018 by Lexington Books, Lantham, MA, USA The author set out to examine the overall power structure and regulatory framework of equine-related sports. The author took a holistic approach to that matter by illustrating the current status quo of

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

, Bogisch S , Roepstorff L , van Weeren PR , Weishaupt MA . Relationship between the forces acting on the horse’s back and the movements of rider and horse while walking on a treadmill . Equine Vet J . 2010 ; 41 : 285 – 291 . doi:10.2746/042516409X397136 10.2746/042516409X397136 7. Jander CB

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Kylie A. Legg, Darryl J. Cochrane, Erica K. Gee, Paul W. Macdermid, and Chris W. Rogers

using Polar human and equine HR monitors attached via Bluetooth to their respective watches (Polar V800 sports watch) each containing a GPS unit at a sampling rate of 1 Hz. Linear accelerations and displacements of horse and jockey were determined via synchronized wireless, triaxial accelerometers with

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Thomas W. Jones, Barry C. Shillabeer, and Marco Cardinale

equine athletes . J Equine Vet Sci . 2006 ; 26 ( 11 ): 507 – 516 . doi:10.1016/j.jevs.2006.09.007 10.1016/j.jevs.2006.09.007 3. Ring EFJ , Ammer K . Infrared thermal imaging in medicine . Physiol Meas . 2012 ; 33 : R33 – R46 . PubMed ID: 22370242 doi:10.1088/0967-3334/33/3/R33 10