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Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue

attention on predicting muscle activation levels in order to reduce injury risks and increase performance in the sport. 6 , 14 , 15 Golf-related EMG studies that have investigated the trunk muscles often include the erector spinae muscle. 8 , 13 , 16 These studies, however, have only investigated the

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Alex V. Nowicky, Alison H. McGregor and Nick J. Davey

We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to study corticospinal excitability to erector Spinae (ES) muscles during graded voluntary contractions in bilateral trunk extension (BTE) and forced expiratory breath holding (FEBH) in normal individuals. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) could be produced in all subjects in the absence of voluntary activation. At maximum voluntary contraction, levels of surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were 4 times greater during BTE than FEBH. When EMG was normalized to maximum. MEP amplitudes increased in proportion to contraction in both tasks. MEPs in FEBH were compared with extrapolated values at similar EMG levels in BTE and were found to be larger. EMG and MEPs in left and right ES were symmetrical throughout the range of contractions in both tasks. ES muscles have a facilitation pattern similar to that previously shown in leg muscles, but subtle differences at low levels of EMG suggest that the facilitation is dependent on the task.

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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer and Sean C. Newcomer

spinae during isometric trunk extension has been reported to be a strong predictor of future development of low back pain in asymptomatic individuals. 21 Further, several studies have reported a relationship between electromyographic (EMG) activity in trunk extensor muscles, particularly erector spinae

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

Abbreviations: CAI, chronic ankle instability; LE, lower-extremity. The Biopac MP 36 System (Biopac Systems Inc, Santa Barbara, CA) was used to collect all the EMG data. 25 , 26 Surface EMG was collected from the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EOB), and rectus abdominis (RA) bilaterally (ipsilateral

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle and Erika Nelson-Wong

, Inc, Olstykke, Denmark) were applied over 6 bilateral muscle groups (Figure  1 ): external obliques, internal obliques, erector spinae (ES) (L1 level), GMed, GMax, and lateral hamstrings (HS). All electrode placements were confirmed through palpation and manual resistance. Raw EMG signals were

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Gabriel Andrade Paz, Lohanne Almeida, Larissa Ruiz, Sabrina Casseres, Giovanna Xavier, João Lucas, Haroldo Gualter Santana, Humberto Miranda, Scott Bonnette and Jeffrey Willardson

effect of VFLS versus a control condition on the underlying myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), the vastus lateralis (VL), the gluteus medius (Gmed), and the erector spinae (ES) muscles during 4 variations of squats performed with bodyweight. Specifically, subjects performed squats

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James W. Youdas, Hannah E. Baartman, Brian J. Gahlon, Tyler J. Kohnen, Robert J. Sparling and John H. Hollman

be directed to movement at its distal end. Trunk muscles such as the external oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae provide spinal stabilization, so the prime mover muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and triceps brachii) can generate forceful arm

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Billy Chun-Lung So, Calvin Hong-Nin Yuen, Ken Long-Hin Tung, Sheena Lam, Sammy Lan Cheng, Zina Wing-Lam Hung, Rainy Wai-Kwan Leung and Grace Pui-Yuk Szeto

Deep water running research to date has mainly focused on its cardiovascular effects. 2 , 10 Kaneda et al 8 has reported increased obliquus externus abdominis and erector spinae (ES) muscle activity for trunk and pelvis control during DWR compared with walking on land (LW). However, that study did

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

disorder in the kinetic chain 14 were excluded from the study (Figure  2 ). Figure 2 Overhead squats. Procedure This study measured muscle activity in 4 muscles, including the erector spinae (ES), MF, TVA, and rectus abdominis (RA). To attach the electrodes, the participants were in standing and relaxed

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

) were placed in alignment with muscle fiber orientation over the left (LIO) and right (RIO) internal oblique, left (LEO) and right (REO) external oblique, and left (LES) and right (RES) erector spinae muscles at the third lumbar level. 11 Surface EMG was sampled at 2000 Hz (Bortec Biomedical Ltd