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Lars McNaughton, Brad Dalton and Janine Tarr

The two basic aims of this study were to add to the limited literature concerning Inosine as an ergogenic aid, and to determine the effects of Inosine supplementation over a period of 5 and 10 days, at a dosage of 10,000 mg · d−1 on measures associated with aerobic and anaerobic performance. Seven trained, volunteer male subjects (body mass = 63.0 ± 8.7 kg, VO2max = 61.9 + 3.3 ml ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) participated in this study. The subjects completed three test sessions, each comprising three tests (5 × 6-s sprint, 30-s sprint, and 20-min time trial). Supplementation was carried out in a random, double-blind manner, and the test sessions were undertaken prior to (Baseline, B), on Day 6, and on Day 11. Blood was sampled prior to supplementation as well as on Days 6 and 11 and was analyzed for uric acid and 2,3 DPG. An analysis of the data indicated no performance benefit of supplementation and no improvement in 2,3 DPG concentration. Uric acid concentration increased significantly after both Days 6 and 11 (p < 0.03 and p < 0.004, respectively). It is concluded that Inosine has no ergogenic effects but may cause possible health problems if taken over long periods of time.

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Kirk J. Cureton, Gordon L. Warren, Mindy L. Millard-Stafford, Jonathan E. Wingo, Jennifer Trilk and Maxime Buyckx

This double-blind experiment examined the effects of a caffeinated sports drink during prolonged cycling in a warm environment. Sixteen highly trained cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo, carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (CES), and caffeinated sports drink (CES+CAF). Subjects cycled for 135 min, alternating between 60% and 75% VO2max every 15 min for the first 120 min, followed by a 15-min performance ride. Maximal voluntary (MVC) and electrically evoked contractile properties of the knee extensors were measured before and after cycling. Work completed during the performance ride was 15–23% greater for CES+CAF than for the other beverages. Ratings of perceived exertion were lower with CES+CAF than with placebo and CES. After cycling, the MVC strength loss was two-thirds less for CES+CAF than for the other beverages (5% vs. 15%). Data from the interpolated-twitch technique indicated that attenuated strength loss with CES+CAF was explained by reduced intrinsic muscle fatigue.

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Nathan T. Jenkins, Jennifer L. Trilk, Arpit Singhal, Patrick J. O’Connor and Kirk J. Cureton

The purpose of this experiment was to learn whether low doses of caffeine have ergogenic, perceptual, and metabolic effects during cycling. To determine the effects of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg caffeine on cycling performance, differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (D-RPE), quadriceps pain intensity, and metabolic responses to cycling exercise, 13 cyclists exercised on a stationary ergometer for 15 min at 80% VO2peak, then, after 4 min of active recovery, completed a 15-min performance ride 60 min after ingesting caffeine or placebo. Work done (kJ/kg) during the performance ride was used as a measure of performance. D-RPE, pain ratings, and expired-gas data were obtained every 3 min, and blood lactate concentrations were obtained at 15 and 30 min. Compared with placebo, caffeine doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg increased performance by 4% (95% CI: 1.0–6.8%, p = .02) and 3% (95% CI: –0.4% to 6.8%, p = .077), respectively. These effects were ergogenic, on average, but varied considerably in magnitude among individual cyclists. There were no effects of caffeine on D-RPE or pain throughout the cycling task. Selected metabolic variables were affected by caffeine, consistent with its known actions. The authors conclude that caffeine preparations of 2 and 3 mg/kg enhanced performance, but future work should aim to explain the considerable interindividual variability of the drug’s ergogenic properties.

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Costas I. Karageorghis, Denis A. Mouzourides, David-Lee Priest, Tariq A. Sasso, Daley J. Morrish and Carolyn L. Walley

The present study examined the impact of motivational music and oudeterous (neutral in terms of motivational qualities) music on endurance and a range of psychophysical indices during a treadmill walking task. Experimental participants (N = 30; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.0 years) selected a program of either pop or rock tracks from artists identified in an earlier survey. They walked to exhaustion, starting at 75% maximal heart rate reserve, under conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous synchronous music, and a no-music control. Dependent measures included time to exhaustion, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and in-task affect (both recorded at 2-min intervals), and exercise-induced feeling states. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time to exhaustion data. Two-way repeated measures (Music Condition × Trial Point) ANOVAs were used to analyze in-task measures, whereas a one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-induced feeling states data. Results indicated that endurance was increased in both music conditions and that motivational music had a greater ergogenic effect than did oudeterous music (p < .01). In addition, in-task affect was enhanced by motivational synchronous music when compared with control throughout the trial (p < .01). The experimental conditions did not impact significantly (p > .05) upon RPE or exercise-induced feeling states, although a moderate effect size was recorded for the latter (ηp 2 = .09). The present results indicate that motivational synchronous music can elicit an ergogenic effect and enhance in-task affect during an exhaustive endurance task.

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Joelle Leonie Flueck, Martina Lienert, Fabienne Schaufelberger, Jörg Krebs and Claudio Perret

The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation on 3-min all-out arm crank exercise performance in paraplegic (P) and tetraplegic (T) compared with able-bodied (AB) participants. A placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind study design was chosen to investigate the differences between caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLC). In total, 34 healthy, trained participants were tested. Seventeen were AB (median [minimum; maximum] VO2peak: 33.9 mL/min/kg [23.6; 57.6]), 10 were P (VO2peak: 34.4 mL/min/kg [19.5; 48.8]), and 7 were T (VO2peak: 13.6 mL/min/kg [8.6; 16.3]). All participants performed two 3-min all-out tests on an arm crank ergometer following the ingestion of either PLC or CAF. Power output parameters, plasma caffeine (PC), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NOR) concentrations were assessed. CAF significantly increased average power over the first 30 s (p = .028) and 60 s (p = .005) in P, but not in T (p = .61; p = .87) nor in AB (p = .25; p = .44). Peak power was increased in the CAF trial in AB (+46 W) as well as in P (+21 W) but was not significantly different from PLC (AB: p = .10; P: p = .17). PC significantly increased in all groups (AB: p = .002; P: p = .005; T: p = .018) whereas EPI showed a significant increase only in AB (p = .002) and in P (p = .018). NOR increased significantly in AB (p = .018) but did not increase in the other groups. Caffeine seems to enhance short-duration exercise performance in P. In contrast, T showed a high interindividual variability and overall no ergogenic effect was detected in this group.

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Craig Pickering and Jozo Grgic

 al., 2008 ). Alongside its direct, well-established ergogenic effects, consumption of caffeine can also offset the fatigue associated with regular, frequent training sessions ( Doherty & Smith, 2005 ), mask training-induced soreness ( Hurley et al., 2013 ; Maridakis et al., 2007 ), or overcome sleep

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

Over the past decade, the use of dietary nitrate to enhance performance has received increased attention, with possible ergogenic effects being caused by the reduction of dietary nitrate into nitrite and nitric oxide ( Lundberg et al., 2008 ). Nitric oxide plays a key role in skeletal muscle

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Jozo Grgic, Filip Sabol, Sandro Venier, Ivan Mikulic, Nenad Bratkovic, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Zeljko Pedisic and Pavle Mikulic

The use of caffeine is highly prevalent among both the general population and athletes. 1 , 2 The International Olympic Committee has also identified caffeine as having strong scientific support for its ergogenic effects on exercise performance. 3 There is good evidence that caffeine ingestion

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

Caffeine (CAF) is used by athletes with a physical impairment ( Graham-Paulson et al., 2015a ), yet very few studies have been conducted using trained and elite athletes ( Flueck et al., 2014 , 2015 ), which is understandable given the practicalities involved. Evidence of CAF’s ergogenic effects

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

that ketone supplements exert no effects—whether positive or negative—on exercise performance. The lack of ergogenic effects was still present when analyzing different types of ketone supplements (ie, ketone ester vs ketone salts), as well as when assessing endurance performance (ie, time trials