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Neil D. Clarke and Darren L. Richardson

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is consumed daily by approximately 80% of the world’s population ( Ogawa & Ueki, 2007 ). Furthermore, due to the ergogenic potential, urine caffeine data suggests that caffeine is widely ingested prior to competition ( Aguilar-Navarro et al., 2019 ), and athletes

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Tom M. McLellan and Doug G. Bell

This study examined whether the prior consumption of coffee (COF) decreased the ergogenic effect of the subsequent ingestion of anhydrous caffeine (CAF). Thirteen subjects performed 6 rides to exhaustion at 80% VO2max 1.5 h after ingesting combinations of COF, decaffeinated coffee (DECOF), CAF, or placebo. The conditions were DECOF + placebo (A), DECOF + CAF (5 mg/kg) (B), COF (1.1 mg/kg caffeine) + CAF (5 mg/kg) (C), COF + CAF (3 mg/kg) (D), COF + CAF (7 mg/kg) (E), and colored water + CAF (5 mg/kg) (F). Times to exhaustion were significantly greater for all trials with CAF versus placebo (trial A). Exercise times (in minutes) were: 21.7 ± 8.1, 29.0 ± 7.4, 27.8 ± 10.8, 25.1 ± 7.9, 26.4 ± 8.0 and 26.8 ± 8.1 for trials A through F, respectively. In conclusion, the prior consumption of COF did not decrease the ergogenic effect of the subsequent ingestion of anhydrous CAF.

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Vitor de Salles Painelli, Emerson L. Teixeira, Bruno Tardone, Marina Moreno, Jonatas Morandini, Victória H. Larrain, and Flávio O. Pires

as ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain are also expected to be lowered with caffeine supplementation ( Duncan et al., 2013 ; Duncan & Oxford, 2012 ). The ergogenic effects of caffeine supplementation have been well described in a variety of exercises, although systematic reviews have

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Lex B. Verdijk

Over the past decade, the use of dietary nitrate to enhance performance has received increased attention, with possible ergogenic effects being caused by the reduction of dietary nitrate into nitrite and nitric oxide ( Lundberg et al., 2008 ). Nitric oxide plays a key role in skeletal muscle

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Cesar L. Teixeira, Paulo V. Mezzaroba, and Fabiana A. Machado

The photobiomodulation (PBM) is an electromagnetic radiation, nonthermal neither harmful, that utilizes visible or invisible lights through laser or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) sources, and it is being studied as a potential ergogenic resource to improve physical performance and competitive sports

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore, and Gregory Whyte

establishment of dosing thresholds for terbutaline; these dosing thresholds are extremely important given recent evidence of ergogenic effects of supratherapeutic dosages of inhaled terbutaline on sprint and power performance, muscle strength, and muscle hypertrophy, as well as inducing muscle phenotype

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Elizabeth Applegate

Athletes use a variety of nutritional ergogenic aids to enhance performance. Most nutritional aids can be categorized as a potential energy source, an anabolic enhancer, a cellular component, or a recovery aid. Studies have consistently shown that carbohydrates consumed immediately before or after exercise enhance performance by increasing glycogen stores and delaying fatigue. Protein and amino acid supplementation may serve an anabolic role by optimizing body composition crucial in strength-related sports. Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenes, may prevent oxidative stress that occurs with intense exercise. Performance during high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting, may be improved with short-term creatine loading, and high-effort exercise lasting 1-7 min may be improved through bicarbonate loading immediately prior to activity. Caffeine dosing before exercise delays fatigue and may enhance performance of high-intensity exercise.

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Michael S. Bahrke, William P. Morgan, and Aaron Stegner

Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. Although it is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments, it is also used to increase work efficiency and is purported to increase energy and physical stamina. Athletes use ginseng for its alleged performance-enhancing attributes. However, many studies examining the pharmacological effects of ginseng on physical performance have not employed sound scientific design and methodology. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on published empirical research focusing primarily on the efficacy of ginseng with respect to physical and athletic performance. Despite attempts in recent investigations to improve on the scientific rigor used in examining the ergogenic properties of ginseng, the authors conclude that many of the same methodological shortcomings observed in earlier studies persist. Enhanced physical performance after ginseng administration in well-designed investigations remains to be demonstrated.

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Sara Elosegui, Jaime López-Seoane, María Martínez-Ferrán, and Helios Pareja-Galeano

Society of Sports Nutrition protocols have no loading phase and appear to be equally effective ( Kreider et al., 2017 ). The CAF SUP has been shown to improve performance in aerobic and anaerobic sports ( Evans et al., 2018 ). Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the ergogenic effect of CAF

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Vilton E.L. de Moura e Silva, Jason M. Cholewa, François Billaut, Ralf Jäger, Marcelo C. de Freitas, Fabio S. Lira, and Fabrício E. Rossi

capsaicin in gel capsules. 7 – 9 The mode of oral delivery (gel capsules vs chewable delivery methods, and capsaicin vs a mix of capsinoids) may influence plasma availability and ergogenic effects. For example, Cross et al 10 found significant acute benefits of a chewable capsaicin supplement on