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Christopher J. Beedie, Damian A. Coleman, and Abigail J. Foad

The article describes a study examining placebo effects associated with the administration of a hypothetical ergogenic aid in sport. Forty-two team-sport athletes were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All subjects completed 3 × 30-m baseline sprint trials after which they were administered what was described to them as an ergogenic aid but was in fact 200 mg of cornstarch in a gelatin capsule. Group 1 was provided with positive information about the likely effects on performance of the substance, whereas Group 2 was provided with negative information about the same substance. The sprint protocol was repeated 20 min later. Although for Group 1 mean speed did not differ significantly between baseline and experimental trials, a significant linear trend of greater speed with successive experimental trials suggested that positive belief exerted a positive effect on performance (P < 0.01). Group 2 ran 1.57% slower than at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.32–2.82%), suggesting that negative belief exerted a negative effect on performance. Collectively, data suggest that subjects’ belief in the efficacy or otherwise of a placebo treatment might significantly influence findings in experimental research.

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Vilton E.L. de Moura e Silva, Jason M. Cholewa, François Billaut, Ralf Jäger, Marcelo C. de Freitas, Fabio S. Lira, and Fabrício E. Rossi

regarding the effects of CAP on exercise performance. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of CAP compounds as an ergogenic aid and to discuss the underlying mechanisms of action by which these supplements may potentially enhance endurance and resistance exercise

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Michael S. Bahrke, William P. Morgan, and Aaron Stegner

Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. Although it is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments, it is also used to increase work efficiency and is purported to increase energy and physical stamina. Athletes use ginseng for its alleged performance-enhancing attributes. However, many studies examining the pharmacological effects of ginseng on physical performance have not employed sound scientific design and methodology. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on published empirical research focusing primarily on the efficacy of ginseng with respect to physical and athletic performance. Despite attempts in recent investigations to improve on the scientific rigor used in examining the ergogenic properties of ginseng, the authors conclude that many of the same methodological shortcomings observed in earlier studies persist. Enhanced physical performance after ginseng administration in well-designed investigations remains to be demonstrated.

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Craig Pickering and Jozo Grgic

Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, with performance-enhancing effects confirmed at the meta-analysis level ( Grgic et al., 2019 ) across a variety of exercise types, including aerobic and muscular endurance, muscle strength, anaerobic power, speed, and jumping performance ( Grgic et

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Marios Papaloucas, Kyriaki Kyriazi, and Vassilis Kouloulias

Nowadays, antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods to confirm the use of forbidden substances. These tests are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein, or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) officially monitors anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. However, several other substances are under review by WAdA. Pheromones accomplish the structure and function of life from its first step, while they have an impact on the body’s performance. Both testosterone and pheromones have an ergogenic effect that could potentially affect an athlete’s performance. The authors share their questions concerning the potential impact of pheromones in sports.

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie, and Richard Taylor

performance in ecologically valid situations, such as a competitive race. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide insight into the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a 1-mile (1609 m) race in trained males. Methods Participants A total of 15 trained middle-distance male

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Brent C. Mangus and Cynthia A. Trowbridge

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Paul L. Greenhaff

Phosphocreatine (PCr) availability is likely to limit performance in brief, high-power exercise because the depletion of PCr results in an inability to maintain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resynthesis at the rate required. It is now known that the daily ingestion of four 5-g doses of creatine for 5 days will significantly increase intramuscular creatine and PCr concentrations prior to exercise and will facilitate PCr resynthesis during recovery from exercise, particularly in those individuals with relatively low creatine concentrations prior to feeding. As a consequence of creatine ingestion, work output during repeated bouts of high-power exercise has been increased under a variety of experimental conditions. The reduced accumulation of ammonia and hypoxanthine in plasma and the attenuation of muscle ATP degradation after creatine feeding suggest that the ergogenic effect of creatine is achieved by better maintaining ATP turnover during contraction.

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Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing, and Carl D. Paton

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most widely consumed of all psychoactive drugs and is frequently used by athletes as a performance-enhancing ergogenic aid. A number of previous reviews have comprehensively documented the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine for both aerobic- 1 , 2

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Janet Walberg-Rankin

Reduction of body stores of carbohydrate and blood glucose is related to the perception of fatigue and the inability to maintain high-quality performance. This has been clearly shown with aerobic, endurance events of moderate intensity of over 90 min duration. Carbohydrate intake may also have relevance for athletes involved in short, high-intensity events, especially if body weight control is an issue. Prevention of carbohydrate depletion begins with a high-carbohydrate training diet of about 60-70% carbohydrate. If possible, carbohydrate beverages should be consumed during the event at the rate of 30-70 g/hr to reduce the chance of body carbohydrate depletion. Finally, replacement of body carbohydrate stores can be achieved most rapidly if 40-60 g of carbohydrate is consumed as soon as possible after the exercise and at repeating 1-hr intervals for at least 5 hr after the event.