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Chunbo Liu

eccentric cycle ergometers. To overcome such difficulty, the components used to build an eccentric cycle ergometer have been briefly described. 3 – 5 However, these early ergometers were constructed using mostly custom parts that resulted in rather complex and costly designs. With the advancements in

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James Wright, Thomas Walker, Scott Burnet and Simon A. Jobson

Physiological testing is frequently performed on a laboratory-based ergometer and is an essential aspect of training for competitive cyclists. 1 The Lode Excalibur Sport is an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer commonly used in sport-science research and is often regarded as a gold

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José R. Lillo-Bevia and Jesús G. Pallarés

measure cycling PO. Furthermore, relatively little information is available regarding the reliability and validity of these devices. There are several specialized standalone ergometers for laboratory use and its high level of reliability and validity have been confirmed (Lode, 1 Ergoline, 2 Monark, 2

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Kazunori Hase, Motoshi Kaya, Amy B. Zavatsky and Suzanne E. Halliday

Rowing ergometers can be found in most gyms and fitness centers, but many people who use them regularly have little or no instruction in rowing technique. It is not known whether nonrowers who regularly practice ergometer rowing are at risk of musculoskeletal problems. This study was done to quantify the differences in kinematics, kinetics, and musculoskeletal loading of competitive rowers and nonrowers during ergometer rowing. An experiment was performed to collect kinematic, external force, and EMG data during er-gometer rowing by 5 university-level competitive rowers and 5 nonrowers. Kinematic and external force data were input to a 3-D whole-body musculo-skeletal model which was used to calculate net joint forces and moments, muscle forces, and joint contact forces. The results showed that competitive rowers and nonrowers are capable of rowing an ergometer with generally similar patterns of kinematics and kinetics; however, there are some potentially important differences in how they use their legs and trunk. The competitive rowers generated higher model quadriceps (vastus) muscle forces and pushed harder against the foot cradle, extending their knees more and their trunks less than the nonrowers during the drive phase. They also had higher contact forces at the knee and higher peak lumbar and knee flexion moments. The ratio of average peak vastus force to average peak erector spinae force in the experienced rowers was 1.52, whereas it was only 1.18 in the nonexperienced rowers.

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

The kayaking stroke is complex and involves upper limb and trunk movements in 3 dimensions combined with coordinated leg movements. Kinematic analyses of elite flat-water paddlers during paddling on a kayak ergometer 1 – 4 and during on-water paddling 4 , 5 have previously been conducted. Upper

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Slobodan Jaric

Maximal sprints in the leg cycle ergometer exercise are commonly used in routine athletic testing as well as in studies investigating the physiological adaptations to strenuous exercise. 1 These tests provide valid measures of anaerobic performance, which is a determinant of success in short

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Margot Callewaert, Stefan Geerts, Evert Lataire, Jan Boone, Marc Vantorre and Jan Bourgois

Purpose:

To develop a sailing ergometer that accurately simulates upwind sailing exercise.

Methods:

A sailing ergometer that measures roll moment accompanied by a biofeedback system that allows imposing a certain quasi-isometric upwind sailing protocol (ie, 18 bouts of 90-s hiking at constantly varying hiking intensity interspersed with 10 s to tack) was developed. Ten male high-level Laser sailors performed an incremental cycling test (ICT; ie, step protocol at 80 W + 40 W/3 min) and an upwind sailing test (UST). During both, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), respiratory-exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were measured. During UST, also the difference between the required and produced hiking moment (HM) was calculated as error score (ES). HR, VO2, and VE were calculated relative to their peak values determined during ICT. After UST, the subjects were questioned about their opinion on the resemblance between this UST and real-time upwind sailing.

Results:

An average HM of 89.0% ± 2.2% HMmax and an average ES of 4.1% ± 1.8% HMmax were found. Mean HR, VO2, and VE were, respectively, 80% ± 4% HRpeak, 39.5% ± 4.5% VO2peak, and 30.3% ± 3.7% VEpeak. Both HM and cardiorespiratory values appear to be largely comparable to literature reports during on-water upwind sailing. Moreover, the subjects gave the upwind sailing ergometer a positive resemblance score.

Conclusions:

Results suggest that this ergometer accurately simulates on-water upwind sailing exercise. As such, this ergometer could be a great help in performance diagnostics and training follow-up.

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho and Slobodan Jaric

cycle ergometer against different resistances. Regarding the methods applied, we hypothesized that (H1) both the multiple-point and the simpler 2-point method would provide reliable outcomes and also (H2) reveal a high level of agreement regarding the magnitudes of the F–V parameters. Regarding the

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Thiago Oliveira Borges, Nicola Bullock, David Aitken and Aaron J. Coutts

Methods:

This study compared 3 commercially available ergometers for within- and between-brands difference to a first-principle calibration rig.

Results:

All ergometers underestimated true mean power, with errors of 27.6% ± 3.7%, 4.5% ± 3.5%, and 22.5% ± 1.9% for the KayakPro, WEBA, and Dansprint, respectively. Within-brand ergometer power differences ranged from 17 ± 9 to 22 ± 11 W for the KayakPro, 3 ± 4 to 4 ± 4 W for the WEBA, and 5 ± 3 to 5 ± 4 W for the Dansprint. The linear-regression analysis showed that most kayak ergometers have a stable coefficient of variation (0.9–1.7%) with a moderate effect size.

Conclusion:

Taken collectively, these findings show that different ergometers present inconsistent outcomes. Therefore, we suggest that athlete testing be conducted on the same ergometer brand, preferably the same ergometer. Optimally, that ergometer should be calibrated using a first-principle device before any athlete testing block.

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Megan E. Anderson, Clinton R. Bruce, Steve F. Fraser, Nigel K. Stepto, Rudi Klein, William G. Hopkins and John A. Hawley

Eight competitive oarswomen (age, 22 ± 3 years; mass, 64.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed three simulated 2,000-m time trials on a rowing ergometer. The trials, which were preceded by a 24-hour dietary and training control and 72 hours of caffeine abstinence, were condueted 1 hour after ingesting caffeine (6 or 9 mg kg ’ body mass) or placebo. Plasma free fatty acid concentrations before exercise were higher with caffeine than placebo (0.67 ± 0.34 vs. 0.72 ± 0.36 vs. 0.30±0.10 mM for 6 and 9 mg · kg−1; caffeine and placebo, respectively; p <.05). Performance lime improved 0.7% (95% confidence interval [Cf] 0 to 1.5%) with 6 mg kg−1 caffeine and 1.3$ (95% CI 0.5 to 2.0%) with 9 mg · kg−1 caffeine. The first 500 m of the 2,000 m was faster with the higher caffeine dose compared with placebo or the lower dose (1.53 ± 0.52 vs. 1.55 ± 0.62 and 1.56 ± 0.43 min; p = .02). We concluded that caffeine produces a worthwhile enhancement of performance in a controlled laboratory setting, primarily by improving the first 500 m of a 2,000-m row.