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Lucinda E. Bouillon, Douglas K. Sklenka and Amy C. Driver

Context:

Interval cycle training could positively influence dynamic balance in middle-aged women.

Objective:

To compare training effects of a strength ergometer and a standard ergometer on 3 dynamic balance tests.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Seventeen women were randomly assigned to standard (n = 10) or strength cycle ergometry (n = 7). A control group consisted of 7 women.

Intervention:

Ergometry interval training (3 sessions/wk for 4 wk).

Main Outcome Measures:

Three balance tests—the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), timed up-and-go (TUG), and four-square step test (FSST)—were performed at pretraining and 4 wk posttraining.

Results:

Four SEBT directions improved and faster scores for FSST and TUG tests for the standard-cycle group were found, whereas the strength-cycle group only improved their TUG scores. No changes posttraining for the control group.

Conclusions:

Stationary cycle training should be included in the dynamic balance-rehabilitation protocol for middle-aged women.

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Alan P. Jung, David C. Nieman and Michael W. Kernodle

The purpose of this study was to validate an existing V̇O2max prediction equation for a graded cycle ergometer test, using adolescents as subjects (14). Healthy, active males (n = 19) and females (n = 19), ages 13–18 years old, pedaled at a rate of 60 rpm until exhaustion, with resistance increasing 15 W every minute. Oxygen uptake, ventilation, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured continuously. A significant correlation was found between predicted and actual V̇O2max for both male (r = 0.90, p < .001) and female (r = 0.91, p < .001) adolescents. For all subjects combined the correlation was r = 0.96, p < .001 with an SEE = 198 ml · min−1. Mean differences between actual and predicted V̇O2max values were 1.0 ± 0.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1 and 2.0 ± 0.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1 for the males and females, respectively (2.1% and 5.2% difference). The data indicate these cycle ergometry equations are valid for prediction of V̇O2max in male and female adolescents.

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Rachael C. Gliottoni, John R. Meyers, Sigurbjörn Á. Arngrímsson, Steven P. Broglio and Robert W. Motl

This experiment examined the effect of a moderate dose of caffeine on quadriceps muscle pain during a bout of high-intensity cycling in low- versus high-caffeine-consuming males. College-age men who were low (≤100 mg/day; n = 12) or high (≥400 mg/day; n = 13) habitual caffeine consumers ingested caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo in a counterbalanced order and 1 hr later completed 30 min of cycle ergometry at 75–77% of peak oxygen consumption. Perceptions of quadriceps muscle pain, as well as oxygen consumption, heart rate, and work rate, were recorded during both bouts of exercise. Caffeine ingestion resulted in a statistically significant and moderate reduction in quadriceps muscle-pain-intensity ratings during the 30-min bout of high-intensity cycle ergometry compared with placebo ingestion in both low (d = −0.42) and high (d = −0.55) caffeine consumers. The results suggest that caffeine ingestion is associated with a moderate hypoalgesic effect during high-intensity cycling in college-age men who are low or high habitual caffeine consumers, but future work should consider better defining and differentiating pain and effort when examining the effects of caffeine during acute exercise.

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Kenneth R. Turley, Danette M. Rogers, Kevin M. Harper, Kathleen I. Kujawa and Jack H. Wilmore

This study was designed to determine the differing cardiorespiratory responses between maximal treadmill (TM) and cycle (CY) ergometry, and the reliability and variability of these responses in 46 children 7 to 9 years old (23 boys and 23 girls). Two maximal TM and two maximal CY tests were administered, as well as a body composition assessment. The TM resulted in a 9.4%, 11,1%, and 10.2% higher maximal oxygen consumption values (V̇O2, ml·kg−1·min−1) than the CY in boys, girls, and the total population, respectively. Both the TM and the CY proved to be reliable measures of maximal V̇O2 (ml·kg−1·min−1) in both boys and girls, with intraclass correlations ranging from R = .63 to .90. Variability was significantly less (p ≤ .05) on the CY (V̇O2 in L·min−1) than the TM, 4.4% versus 6.2%, respectively.

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Joni S. Yates, Stephanie Studenski, Steven Gollub, Robert Whitman, Subashan Perera, Sue Min Lai and Pamela W. Duncan

This study evaluated the feasibility, safety, and findings from a protocol for exercise-bicycle ergometry in subacute-stroke survivors. Of 117 eligible candidates, 14 could not perform the test and 3 discontinued because of cardiac safety criteria. In the 100 completed tests, peak heart rate was 116 ± 19.1 beats/min; peak VO2 was 11.4 ± 3.7 ml · kg · min−1, peak METs were 3.3 ± 0.91, exercise duration was 5.1 ± 2.84 min., and Borg score was 14 ± 2.6. Among 71 tests, anaerobic threshold was achieved in 3.0 ± 1.7 min with a VO2 of 8.6 ± 1.7 ml · kg · min−1. After screening, this protocol is feasible and safe in subacute-stroke survivors with mild to moderate deficits. These stroke survivors have severely limited functional exercise capacity. Research and clinical practice in stroke rehabilitation should incorporate more comprehensive evaluation and treatment of endurance limitations.

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Gregory B. Dwyer and Anthony D. Mahon

Little is known about the responses to graded exercise in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). This study compared the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak VO2 among athletes with CP during treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. Six (4 men, 2 women) track athletes with CP volunteered to participate in the study. Graded exercise tests on a treadmill and cycle ergometer were performed on separate days to assess VT and peak VO2. Paired t tests were used to compare the two exercise modes. The VT, expressed as a percentage of peak VO2, was significantly higher on the cycle ergometer than on the treadmill. The absolute VO2 at the VT was similar during both testing modes, and peak VO2 was significantly higher on the treadmill than on the cycle ergometer. Similar to responses seen in able-bodied individuals, the VO2 at VT was similar during both modes of exercise, while the peak VO2 was 10% lower on the cycle than on the treadmill. Cycle ergometer peak VO2 in these athletes was higher than previous reports of individuals with CP for the cycle ergometer.

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David Michael Morris and Rebecca Susan Shafer

The authors sought to compare power output at blood lactate threshold, maximal lactate steady state, and pH threshold with the average power output during a simulated 20-km time trial assessed during cycle ergometry. Participants (N = 13) were trained male and female cyclists and triathletes, all permanent residents at moderate altitude (1,525–2,225 m). Testing was performed at 1,525 or 1,860 m altitude. Power outputs were determined during a simulated 20-km time trial (PTT), at blood pH threshold (PpHT), at maximal lactate steady state (PMLSS), and at blood lactate threshold determined by 2 methods: the highest power output that did not result in consecutive and continued increases in blood lactate concentrations from exercising baseline (PLT) and the highest power output that did not result in consecutive and continued increases of ≥1 mmol/L in blood lactate concentrations from exercising baseline (PLT1). PLT, PLT1, and PMLSS were all significantly lower than PpHT (p < .05) and PTT (p < .05). No significant difference was observed between PpHT and PTT (p > .05). Significant correlations were observed between each of the metabolic variables, PLT, PLT1, PMLSS, and PpHT, compared with PTT (p < .05). The authors conclude that, of the 4 metabolic variables, only PpHT offered an accurate reflection of PTT.

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Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Saeed A. Al-Refaee, Muhammed A. Sulaiman, Ma’ed Y. Dafterdar, Abdullah S. Al-Herbish and Andrew C. Chukwuemeka

The purpose of this study was to examine the maximal cardiorespiratory responses of trained adolescent male swimmers (SWM, N = 18), soccer players (SOC, N = 18), and moderately active reference subjects (CON, N = 16) to treadmill running (TRD) and arm ergometry (ARM). Mean values (±SD)for skeletal age were similar among the three groups (12.5± 1.9, 12.7 ± 1.1, and 12.5 ± 1.6 years, for the SWM, SOC, and CON, respectively). Allometric scaling procedures, relating VO2max and body mass, were used and mass exponents of .80 and .74 were identified for TRD and ARM data, respectively. During TRD testing SOC attained significantly higher VO2max values when expressed in ml · kg−1 · min−1, or ml · kg−0.80 · min−1 than the other two groups. However, during ARM testing, the SWM achieved significantly higher VO2peak values (ml · kg−0.74 · min−1 and scaled to arm-CSA) than SOC. The ratio of ARM-VAT to TRD-VAT was significantly higher in SWM (50.1± 9%) compared to SOC (41.2±5%), or CON (41.9 ± 6%).

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Thomas I. Gee, Duncan N. French, Karl C. Gibbon and Kevin G. Thompson

Purpose:

This study investigated the pacing strategy adopted and the consistency of performance and related physiological parameters across three 2000-m rowing-ergometer tests.

Methods:

Fourteen male well-trained rowers took part in the study. Each participant performed three 2000-m rowing-ergometer tests interspersed by 3–7 d. Throughout the trials, respiratory exchange and heart rate were recorded and power output and stroke rate were analyzed over each 500 m of the test. At the completion of the trial, assessments of blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion were measured.

Results:

Ergometer performance was unchanged across the 3 trials; however, pacing strategy changed from trial 1, which featured a higher starting power output and more progressive decrease in power, to trials 2 and 3, which were characterized by a more conservative start and an end spurt with increased power output during the final 500 m. Mean typical error (TE; %) across the three 2000-m trials was 2.4%, and variability was low to moderate for all assessed physiological variables (TE range = 1.4−5.1%) with the exception of peak lactate (TE = 11.5%).

Conclusions:

Performance and physiological responses during 2000-m rowing ergometry were found to be consistent over 3 trials. The variations observed in pacing strategy between trial 1 and trials 2 and 3 suggest that a habituation trial is required before an intervention study and that participants move from a positive to a reverse-J-shaped strategy, which may partly explain conflicting reports in the pacing strategy exhibited during 2000-m rowing-ergometer trials.

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Rachel L. Wright, Dan M. Wood and David V.B. James

The aims of the study were to investigate whether starting cadence had an effect on 10-s sprint-performance indices in friction-loaded cycle ergometry and to investigate the influence of method of power determination. In a counterbalanced order, 12 men and 12 women performed three 10-s sprints using a stationary (0 rev/min), moderate (60 rev/min), and high (120 rev/min) starting cadence Calculated performance indices were peak power, cadence at peak power, time to peak power, and work to peak power. When the uncorrected method of power determination was applied, there was a main effect for starting cadence in female participants for peak power (stationary 635 ± 183.7 W, moderate 615.4 ± 168.9 W and high 798.4 ± 120.1 W) and cadence at peak power (89.8 ± 2.3 rev/min, 87.9 ± 21.5 rev/min, and 113.1 ± 12.5 rev/min). For both the uncorrected and directly measured methods of power determination in men and women, there was a main effect for starting cadence for time to peak power and work to peak power. In women, for an uncorrected method of power determination, it can be concluded that starting cadence does affect peak power and cadence at peak power. This effect is, however, negated by a direct-measurement method of power determination. In men and women, for both uncorrected and directly measured methods o power determination, time to peak power and work to peak power were affected by starting cadence. Therefore, a higher-cadence start is unsuitable, particularly when sprint-performance indices are determined from an uncorrected method.